Collection

Households below average income (HBAI) statistics

Statistics on the number and percentage of people living in low-income households in the UK.

These publications provide statistics and commentary on living standards in UK households, as determined by disposable income. They include the number and percentage of people living in low-income households, and changes in income patterns over time.

Find future households below average income (HBAI) statistics release dates in our statistics release calendar.

There is more about DWP statistics on the Statistics at DWP page.

Email team.hbai@dwp.gov.uk with any questions or feedback.

2022 review of the material deprivation questions in the FRS

The DWP, in partnership with independent researchers at the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), is conducting a review of the HBAI material deprivation measures and the questions in the Family Resources Survey (FRS). This review, which takes place until Autumn 2022, will ensure that the material deprivation measures continue to make high standards of:

  • public value
  • quality
  • trustworthiness

Specifically, this review will explore:

  • which material deprivation items for families with children, families with working-age adults and families with pensioners should be included in the FRS
  • what are the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches for determining who is materially deprived
  • what are the advantages and disadvantages of developing a “core” set of questions for the whole population alongside measures aimed at specific family types
  • do the advantages of changing the material deprivation items and methodology/methodologies outweigh the disadvantages, for example a break in the time series

Further information

For more information on the current material deprivation measures, weightings and survey questions, please see the latest HBAI quality and methodology information report.

Feedback

As part of the review, we would also be keen to hear from current or potential future users of the statistics.

Please email materialdeprivation.review@dwp.gov.uk with any feedback or comments on the current measures and items or on the research questions above.

We are particularly keen to hear from users regarding what would improve the value of the measure(s) to them.

HBAI data on Stat-Xplore

UK-level HBAI data is available from financial year ending (FYE) 1995 to FYE 2020 on the Stat-Xplore online tool. You can use Stat-Xplore to create your own HBAI analysis.

HBAI information is available at:

  • an individual level
  • a family level (benefit unit level)
  • a household level

Read the user guide to HBAI data on Stat-Xplore.

We are seeking feedback from users on this development release of HBAI data on Stat-Xplore – email team.hbai@dwp.gov.uk with your comments.

Latest release

Background information and guidance

Previous releases

Find archived HBAI reports on the National Archives website.

Published 14 June 2013
Last updated 31 March 2022 + show all updates
  1. Added a link to the latest release of HBAI statistics: Households below average income: for financial years ending 1995 to 2021.

  2. Added a note about the next release of HBAI statistics (due to be published on 31 March). Due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the range of statistics we publish, this year’s statistical release will be more limited than in previous years.

  3. Added a note about the information in the next release of HBAI statistics, this will be published on 31 March 2022.

  4. Added information about the 2022 review of the material deprivation questions in the Family Resources Survey (FRS).

  5. Added a link to the latest release of these statistics: Households below average income: for financial years ending 1995 to 2020.

  6. Added a note about the information in the next release of HBAI statistics, this will be published on 25 March 2021.

  7. Added a link to 'Households below average income: 1994/95 to 2018/19'.

  8. Added a link to a statistical notice about the development of a new measure of poverty.

  9. Revised information about Stat-Xplore, including a link to an updated version of the user guide to HBAI data on Stat-Xplore.

  10. Added a link to 'Households below average income: 1994/95 to 2017/18'.

  11. Added information that HBAI data is now available on Stat-Xplore - an online tool that lets you create customised tabulations and view results in interactive charts.

  12. Added 'Households below average income: 1994/1995 to 2016/2017'.

  13. Published Households below average income: 1994/1995 to 2015/2016.

  14. Published a statistical notice about a change in methodology for the HBAI report, to take effect for the 2015/16 publication.

  15. Published Households below average income: 1994/1995 to 2014/2015.

  16. Added link to background information about a new statistics publication 'Income dynamics' due to be published in February/March 2017.

  17. Published Households below average income: 1994/1995 to 2013/2014.

  18. Published Households below average income (HBAI) stats for 1994/95 to 2012/13.

  19. Added "Re-grossed Households below average income (HBAI) estimates 2002/03 to 2011/12"

  20. Published next release date for these statistics (1 July 2014).

  21. Published new statistical note confirming changes to the 2012/13 HBAI report, provisionally scheduled for publication in June 2014.

  22. Link added to statistical notice about proposed changes to future publications

  23. First published.