National Statistics

Households below average income: 1994/95 to 2009/10

Data on potential living standards as determined by disposable income in 2009/10, changes in income patterns over time and income mobility.



This is the 22nd edition of the households below average income (HBAI) statistical series.

Find out how low income is measured.


This section includes an overview of the background, changes over time and shows:

  • summary of key findings
  • distribution of disposable income
  • how different client groups (children, working-age adults and pensioners) are distributed across income quintiles
  • the percentage of each client group below various fractions of median income
  • the composition by client group of the total number of people below these thresholds
  • material deprivation (children and pensioner chapters only)
  • decile medians and quintile medians in real terms
  • population estimates for key groups
  • measures of income inequality
  • percentages of groups with income below various fractions of contemporary median income
  • percentages of groups with income below various fractions of base-year median income
  • persistent low income statistics


This section includes the glossary and definitions of the terms used in the report, and more detail on HBAI methodology.

Data tables and charts

Data tables and charts in spreadsheet format are also available as attachments within the main PDF publication.