Collection

Clostridium difficile: guidance, data and analysis

The characteristics, diagnosis, management, surveillance and epidemiology of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile).

Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a bacterium that’s found in people’s intestines. It can be found in healthy people, where it causes no symptoms (up to 3% of adults and 66% of babies).

C. difficile causes disease when the normal bacteria in the gut are disadvantaged, usually by someone taking antibiotics. This allows C. difficile to grow to unusually high levels. It also allows the toxin that some strains of C. difficile produce to reach levels where it attacks the intestines and causes mild to severe diarrhoea.

C. difficile can lead to more serious infections of the intestines with severe inflammation of the bowel (pseudomembranous colitis). C. difficile is the biggest cause of infectious diarrhoea in hospitalised patients.

You can become infected with C. difficile if you ingest the bacterium (through contact with a contaminated environment or person). People who become infected with C. difficile are usually those who’ve taken antibiotics, particularly the elderly and people whose immune systems are compromised.

Epidemiology

PHE has carried out mandatory enhanced surveillance of C. difficile infection since April 2007 for NHS acute trusts; patient-level data of any C. difficile infections are reported monthly to PHE. Independent sector (IS) healthcare organisations providing regulated activities also undertake surveillance of C. difficile infection.

  1. Clostridium difficile infection: monthly data by NHS acute trust

    • National Statistics
  2. Clostridium difficile infection: monthly data by attributed clinical commissioning group

    • National Statistics
  3. Clostridium difficile infection: annual data

    • Official Statistics
  4. Clostridium difficile: annual trends in voluntary surveillance

    • Research and analysis
  5. MRSA, MSSA and E. coli bacteraemia and C. difficile infection: annual epidemiological commentary

    • Official Statistics
  6. MRSA, MSSA and E. coli bacteraemia and C. difficile infection: quarterly epidemiological commentary

    • Official Statistics
  7. MRSA, MSSA and E. coli bacteraemia and Clostridium difficile infection: annual data for independent sector healthcare organisations

    • Official Statistics
  8. MRSA, MSSA and E. coli bacteraemia and Clostridium difficile infection: 6-monthly data for independent sector healthcare organisations

    • Official Statistics
  9. Clostridium difficile ribotyping network (CDRN) report

    • Research and analysis
  10. MRSA, MSSA and E. coli bacteraemia and C. difficile infection: 30 day all-cause fatality

    • Research and analysis

Official statistics compliance

Healthcare associated infections (HCAI) mandatory surveillance statistics publications are produced in accordance with the code of practice for official statistics and are designated as National Statistics. Below are data-specific documents which describe our compliance with aspects of the Code.

User engagement

Summary of user engagement collates evidence from mandatory HCAI surveillance statistics users. It includes:

  • how the statistics are used
  • views on how provision of the statistics meets the needs of users
  • our actions in response to user feedback

We will update this document as we receive further user feedback.

Minutes of the HCAI Mandatory Surveillance Stakeholder Engagement Forum:

  1. Pre-release access list: mandatory HCAI statistical releases

    • Guidance
  2. MRSA, MSSA and E. coli bacteraemia and C. difficile infection mandatory data: revisions and amendments policy

    • Guidance
  3. Mandatory healthcare associated infection (HCAI) surveillance: data quality statement

    • Guidance