The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) advise against all travel to within 10km of the border with the Ukrainian Donetsk and Lugansk Oblasts.

The FCO advise against all but essential travel to within 10km of the border with the Ukrainian Kharkiv Oblast.

The FCO advise against all travel to Chechnya, Ingushetia and Dagestan and the districts of Budyonnovsky, Levokumsky, Neftekumsky, Stepnovsky and Kursky in Stavropol Krai.

The FCO advise against all but essential travel to North Ossetia, Karachai-Cherkessia and Kabardino-Balkaria (including the Elbrus area). See Local travel and Terrorism

The UK doesn’t recognise Crimea as being part of Russia. See the Ukraine travel advice page for details.

There are on-going armed clashes, kidnappings, seizure of buildings and other violent incidents in the Donetsk, Lugansk and Kharkiv oblasts of Ukraine bordering Russia. The picture remains volatile and uncertain. However, it is clear that a number of border crossing points are insecure, and fighting is taking place across the border. You should remain vigilant throughout regions of Russia bordering Ukraine, and avoid all demonstrations and public gatherings.

There is a high threat from terrorism. Attacks have occurred most frequently in Moscow and in the North Caucasus. You should remain vigilant in all public places. See Terrorism

On 14 November, Russia’s anti-terrorism committee announced that all elements of the security system had been put on heightened alert. Security measures have been bolstered including at airports and transport hubs.

On 31 October 2015, a flight from Sharm el Sheikh to St Petersburg crashed in North Sinai. Egyptian and Russian authorities are conducting an investigation. The investigation has not yet formally concluded but, on 17 November, Russian authorities stated that the crash was caused by an explosive device on board the flight.

Political rallies can occur in Moscow, St. Petersburg and other places across Russia. Check media for the latest information, be vigilant, and avoid any demonstrations. See Political situation

You should be aware of the risk of street crime. See Crime

According to the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, British nationals made around 260,000 visits to Russia in 2013. Most visits are trouble-free.

The Overseas Business Risk service offers information and advice for British companies operating overseas on how to manage political, economic, and business security-related risks.

Take out comprehensive travel and medical insurance before you travel.