Guidance

Rabies in bats: how to spot it and report it

Signs that may suggest rabies in bats, what to do if you spot them and measures to prevent exposing yourself to the disease.

It is possible, although rare, for a bat infected with rabies to pass the disease on to other mammals, including humans.

The most recent case of rabies in a bat in Great Britain was in September 2017.

Rabies in bats is a notifiable animal disease. If you suspect it you must report it immediately by calling the Defra Rural Services Helpline on 03000 200 301. Failure to do so is an offence.

Signs that a bat may have rabies

Infected bats may not show any signs of rabies. Infection can only be confirmed in a laboratory.

But clinical signs in bats may include:

  • behaviour changes: infected animals are prone to more aggression
  • disorientation and difficulty flying (infected bats may be injured as a result)
  • eyes taking on a staring expression

How rabies is spread

Rabies is present in the saliva of infected bats and is usually spread by the bite of an infected bat.

The disease can also be spread if the saliva of an infected animal gets into open wounds or mucous membranes such as the nostrils, mouth and lips, eyelids and ears.

Risk to humans from infected bats

Humans can catch rabies from a bat, although this is very unusual as the disease is very rare among bats in Great Britain.

In humans symptoms of the disease include:

  • anxiety, headaches and fever in early stages
  • spasms of the swallowing muscles making it difficult or impossible to drink
  • breathing difficulties

There are vaccinations against rabies, and the disease can normally be prevented if you are treated soon after exposure. But once signs of rabies appear, there is no treatment. Past human cases have been fatal.

Read the NHS guide to rabies for more information about the disease in humans.

How to avoid catching rabies from a bat

You should be vaccinated against rabies if you regularly handle bats.

If you have not been vaccinated against the disease:

  • assume that all bats are possible carriers of rabies
  • avoid touching bats, living or dead, whenever possible
  • if you must touch a bat, follow the Bat Conservation Trust guidance and wear thick gloves to avoid being bitten or scratched

If you are bitten or scratched by a bat

If you have been bitten or scratched by a bat, or exposed to bat saliva or nervous tissue in any other way, you must:

  • wash the wound or contact area with soap and water
  • disinfect the wound
  • contact a doctor immediately who will decide whether you need treatment

If you find a dead bat

If you find a dead bat:

If your pet finds a bat

It is possible, although very rare, for infected bats to pass rabies to other animals including pets.

If your pet catches a bat, keep your pet under observation.

If your pet falls sick or starts behaving unusually, you must contact your vet immediately. Your vet will tell APHA if he or she suspects your pet has rabies.

If you suspect rabies in a bat

If you report suspicion of rabies in a bat, APHA vets will investigate and may submit the bat for testing to see whether the signs were caused by rabies.

Monitoring rabies in bats in Great Britain

APHA tests dead bats submitted by the public to monitor how widespread the disease is in Great Britain.

Only 14 infected bats have been found in more than 15,000 tests since 1986, so the risk of catching rabies from a bat is very low.

Published 26 August 2014
Last updated 4 April 2018 + show all updates
  1. Updated the contact details on who to contact if you find a dead bat.
  2. Updated the number of cases of rabies in bats.
  3. Updated information on when the most recent case of rabies in a bat in Great Britain was.
  4. Updated the information on the number of case of rabies in a bat.
  5. Minor change to reflect that the most recent case of rabies in a bat in Great Britain was in July 2015.
  6. Updated Bat Conservation Trust helpline number
  7. AHVLA documents have been re-assigned to the new Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA).
  8. First published.