Azerbaijan: migrant health guide

Advice and guidance on the health needs of migrant patients from Azerbaijan for healthcare practitioners.

Main messages

If the patient is new to the UK:

Screen all new entrants, including children, for tuberculosis (TB).

Consider screening for hepatitis B, particularly among those who have recently arrived. Azerbaijan has an intermediate prevalence.

Consider screening for hepatitis C, because Azerbaijan has a considerably higher prevalence than the UK.

There is a risk of typhoid infection in Azerbaijan.

Consider nutritional and metabolic concerns.

Infectious diseases


Ensure that all patients, especially children, are up-to-date with the UK immunisation schedule. See Immunisation collection with complete schedules.

Tuberculosis (TB)

The incidence of TB in Azerbaijan is high (40 to 499 cases/100,000) and there is also a high burden of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB, so:

  • screen all new entrants (including children) from Azerbaijan for TB according to NICE guidelines
  • refer to TB services promptly if screening is positive
  • seek advice, if you are a local TB service, from the MDR-TB Clinical Advice Service before treating patients from Azerbaijan for TB
  • maintain long term vigilance for symptoms of TB even if initial screening is negative
  • be aware that TB is a notifiable disease

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV

Take a sexual history, and:

Azerbaijan has a low rate of HIV (≤1%), so:

  • offer and recommend a HIV test if the patient:
    • falls into a high risk group
    • is newly registering in a high prevalence area
  • be advised that national guidelines do not recommend routine consideration of HIV testing of infants and children who have recently arrived in the UK

Hepatitis B

Azerbaijan has an intermediate prevalence of hepatitis B, so:

  • consider screening for hepatitis B, particularly those who have recently arrived
  • offer screening for hepatitis B to all pregnant women during each pregnancy
  • immunise appropriately babies born to mothers who are hepatitis B positive, and follow up accordingly
  • be aware that the UK has a universal infant immunisation programme for hepatitis B and a selective immunisation programme for higher risk groups

Hepatitis C

Azerbaijan has a considerably higher prevalence of hepatitis C than the UK, so consider screening for hepatitis C if other risk factors apply.


There is a risk of typhoid infection in Azerbaijan, so:

  • ensure that travellers to Azerbaijan are offered typhoid immunisation and advice on prevention of enteric fever
  • remember enteric fever in the differential diagnosis of illness in patients with a recent history of travel to or from Azerbaijan


There is a risk of helminth infections in Azerbaijan, including soil transmitted helminthiasis.

Travel plans and advice

Ask opportunistically about any travel plans the patient may have to visit friends and relatives in their country of origin. People who travel to visit friends and relatives (VFR travellers) should visit the Foreign and Commonwealth Office for overseas travel advice and National Travel Health Network and Centre (NaTHNaC) for country specific travel advice prior to leaving the UK.

Nutritional and metabolic concerns


There is a moderate risk of anaemia in adults (estimated prevalence in non-pregnant women is 20 to 40%) and pre-school children (estimated prevalence is 20 to 40%), so:

  • be alert to the possibility of anaemia in recently arrived migrants, particularly women and pre-school children
  • test as clinically indicated

Vitamin D

Consider the possibility of vitamin D deficiency in people who may be at risk due to:

  • darker skin
  • those who are not often outdoors
  • those who cover up most of their skin when outdoors


People from Azerbaijan may be at risk of mild iodine deficiency due to inadequate iodine intake.

Women’s health

Reproductive health indicators

Reproductive health indicator UK Azerbaijan
Children per woman¹ 1.7 1.8
Use of contraception² 71.7% 54.9%

¹lifetime average ²by woman of reproductive age or partner

No data is available on:

  • mammography screening rates
  • cervical cancer screening rates

Country profile

Health indicators and health care

WHO Global Health Observatory has a summary of health indicators and health care in Azerbaijan.

Culture, politics and history

BBC News and The World Factbook provide background information on the culture, politics and history of Azerbaijan.


Language Population (%)¹
Azerbaijani (Azeri) (official) 92.5
Russian 1.4
Armenian 1.4
Other 4.7

¹2012 est

Source: The World Factbook.


Religion Population (%)¹
Muslim 93.4
Russian Orthodox 2.5
Armenian Orthodox 2.3
Other 1.8

¹2012 est.

Source: The World Factbook.

Migration to the UK

There were almost 3,000 people from Azerbaijan living in England and Wales at the time of the 2011 Census.

Source: Office for National Statistics

Published 31 July 2014
Last updated 22 July 2021 + show all updates
  1. Updated country guidance on prevalence of communicable diseases and other health topics.

  2. First published.