Guidance

Bahrain: migrant health guide

Advice and guidance on the health needs of migrant patients from Bahrain for healthcare practitioners.

Main messages

If the patient is new to the UK:

  • explain to them how the NHS works
  • discuss how this compares to the healthcare system they’ve been used to

Ensure that all patients are up-to-date with the UK immunisation schedule.

Determine any risk factors for hepatitis B infection that may indicate the need for screening, because Bahrain has a low prevalence.

Consider screening for hepatitis C, because Bahrain has a considerably higher prevalence than the UK.

Ask opportunistically about any travel plans the patient may have to visit friends and relatives in their country of origin, and see National Travel Health Network and Centre (NaTHNaC), or the Health Protection Scotland websites (TRAVAX and fitfortravel), for travel advice.

There is a risk of typhoid infection in Bahrain.

Infectious diseases

Immunisation

Ensure that all patients, especially children, are up-to-date with the UK immunisation schedule. See Immunisation collection with complete schedules.

Tuberculosis (TB)

There is a low incidence of TB in Bahrain (<40 cases/100,000), so:

  • routine screening for TB is not required
  • consider testing in patients (including children) who show signs and symptoms
  • be aware that TB is a notifiable disease

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)and HIV

Take a sexual history, and:

  • screen for STIs and HIV according to risk as specified in the UK national standards and guidelines
  • test all sexually active patients under the age of 25 for chlamydia

Bahrain has a low rate of HIV (≤1%), so

  • offer and recommend a HIV test if the patient:
    • falls into a high risk group
    • is newly registering in a high prevalence area
  • be advised that national guidelines do not recommend routine consideration of HIV testing of infants and children who have recently arrived in the UK

Hepatitis B

Bahrain has a low prevalence of hepatitis B, so:

  • offer screening for hepatitis B to all pregnant women during each pregnancy
  • immunise appropriately babies born to mothers who are hepatitis B positive, and follow-up accordingly
  • be aware that the UK has a selective immunisation programme for hepatitis B

Hepatitis C

Bahrain has a considerably higher prevalence of hepatitis C than the UK, so consider screening for hepatitis C.

Travel plans and advice

Ask opportunistically about any travel plans the patient may have to visit friends and relatives in their country of origin, and see National Travel Health Network and Centre (NaTHNaC), or the Health Protection Scotland websites (TRAVAX and fitfortravel), for travel advice.

Typhoid

There is a risk of typhoid infection in Bahrain, so:

  • ensure that travellers to Bahrain are offered typhoid immunisation and advice on prevention of enteric fever
  • remember enteric fever in the differential diagnosis of illness in patients with a recent history of travel to-or-from Bahrain

Women’s health

Reproductive health indicators

Reproductive health indicator UK Bahrain
Children per woman¹ 2 2

¹lifetime average

No data are available on:

  • contraceptive use
  • mammography screening rates
  • cervical cancer screening rates

Nutritional and metabolic concerns

Anaemia

There is a moderate risk of anaemia in adults (estimated prevalence in non-pregnant women is 20 to 40%) and pre-school children (estimated prevalence is 20 to 40%), so:

  • be alert to the possibility of anaemia in recently arrived migrants, particularly women and pre-school children
  • test as clinically indicated

Vitamin D

Consider the possibility of vitamin D deficiency in people who may be at risk due to:

  • covering their body for cultural or religious reasons (lack of sunlight)
  • skin colour
  • diet (vegan or vegetarian)

Iodine

People from Bahrain may be at risk of iodine induced hyperthyroidism due to excessive intake.

Country profile

Health indicators and health care

WHO Global Health Observatory has a summary of health indicators and health care in Bahrain.

Culture, politics and history

BBC News and The World Factbook provide background information on the culture, politics and history of Bahrain.

Languages

The main languages used in Bahrain are:

  • English (official)
  • Farsi
  • Urdu

Source: The World Factbook

Religions

Religion Population (%)¹
Muslim 70.3
Christian 14.5
Hindu 9.8
Buddhist 2.5
Jewish 0.6
Folk religion <0.1
Unaffiliated 1.9
Other 0.2

¹2010 est.

Source: The World Factbook

Migration to the UK

There were almost 5,000 people from Bahrain living in the UK at the time of the 2011 Census.

Source: Office for National Statistics

Published 31 July 2014