Carbapenem resistance: guidance, data and analysis

The management, surveillance and epidemiology of carbapenem resistance.

Carbapenems are a powerful group of broad spectrum beta-lactam (penicillin-related) antibiotics. In many cases, these are our last effective defence against infections caused by multi-resistant bacteria, such as some strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli.

Resistance to carbapenems has emerged and is beginning to spread. New antibiotics need to be developed to counter bacteria with this type of resistance. Hospitals need good infection control to prevent their spread.

Public Health England’s Antimicrobial resistance and healthcare associated infections (AMRHAI) reference unit conducts monitoring and surveillance on antibiotic resistance, and has particular interest in carbapenem-resistant bacteria.



For more clinical or technical guidance and publications see Antimicrobial resistance (AMR): information and resources.


English Surveillance Programme for Antimicrobial Utilisation and Resistance (ESPAUR) is designed to develop and maintain robust information and surveillance systems to measure antimicrobial utilisation and its impact on resistance and patient safety in England.

Updates to this page

Published 1 April 2013
Last updated 27 July 2021 + show all updates
  1. Added 'Carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria: laboratory surveillance' under Epidemiology.

  2. Removed 'Carbapenamase producing enterobacterales: framework of actions', 'CPE: non-acute and community healthcare toolkit', and 'Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae: acute trusts toolkit'. Replaced with ‘Actions to contain carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE)’

  3. Added: 'Carbapenamase producing enterobacterales: a framework of actions'.

  4. Added 'Detection of acquired carbapenemases: commercial assays' to collection.

  5. Removed data collection section which referred to the Electronic Reporting System (ERS) enhanced surveillance website which is closing at the end of April 2019.

  6. First published.