1. When you can claim

You can make a claim to an employment tribunal if you think someone has treated you unlawfully, eg your employer, a potential employer or a trade union.

Unlawful treatment can include:

  • unfair dismissal
  • discrimination
  • unfair deductions from your pay

You usually have to make a claim to the tribunal within 3 months of your employment ending or the problem happening.

The tribunal is independent of government and will listen to you (the ‘claimant’) and the person you’re making a claim against (the ‘respondent’) before making a decision.

See if 
there’s another way to solve the problem before you make a claim to a tribunal, 
eg use a grievance procedure.

Before you make a claim

You must notify the Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service (Acas) of your intention to make a claim to the tribunal.

You’ll be offered the chance to try and settle the dispute without going to court by using Acas’s free ‘Early Conciliation’ service.

You’ll get a certificate from Acas if conciliation doesn’t work - use this when you make a claim to the tribunal.

The deadline for making a claim to the tribunal is extended by the amount of time you spend in conciliation. For example, if you spend 2 weeks in conciliation, the deadline is 2 weeks later. You’ll always get at least one month to make a claim.

Contact Acas if you have any questions.

Acas
Telephone: 0300 123 1100
Textphone: 18001 030 0123 1100
Monday to Friday, 8am to 8pm
Saturday, 9am to 1pm
Find out about call charges

Help you can get

You may want to get legal help or advice if you’re in England and Wales or Scotland before you make your claim.

You can also get free legal advice from Citizens Advice or Citizens Advice Scotland.

Your trade union may be able to pay for a solicitor.

The Equality Advisory and Support Service can help if your claim is about discrimination. You may also be able to get legal aid.

Call the public enquiry line if you have any questions about completing the form. The helpline can’t give you legal advice.

Employment Tribunal public enquiry line
Telephone: 0300 123 1024 (England and Wales)
Telephone: 0141 354 8574 (Scotland)
Minicom: 01509 221564
Find out about call charges

If you’re in Northern Ireland

You’ll need to make a claim to the Office of Industrial Tribunals and the Fair Employment Tribunal if you live in Northern Ireland.