Guidance

Newcastle disease: how to spot and report it

How to spot Newcastle disease, what to do if you suspect it and measures to prevent its spread.

Newcastle disease affects chickens and other captive and wild birds.

Humans aren’t normally affected, but people in direct contact with infected birds may develop a very short-term eye infection, which passes without treatment.

The disease was last confirmed in Great Britain in 2006.

Newcastle disease is a notifiable disease. That means if you suspect it you must tell your nearest Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA) office immediately. Failure to do so is an offence.

How to spot Newcastle disease

As the disease develops affected birds may show some of the following signs:

  • respiratory distress such as gaping beak, coughing, sneezing, gurgling, rattling
  • nervous signs characterised by tremors and paralysis and twisting of the neck
  • unusually watery faeces (diarrhoea) that are yellowish-green in colour
  • depression
  • lack of appetite

Affected hens may also suddenly produce less eggs. Eggs that are laid may be soft-shelled.

The disease may lead to intense clinical signs, with a sudden onset leading to likely death. Or it may have a lesser affect, with breathing problems and lower egg production the only detectable clinical signs.

How Newcastle disease is spread

The disease is spread by direct contact with bodily fluids of infected birds, especially their faeces.

It can also be spread indirectly through people and objects that have been in contact with infected birds, or their excretions (such as faeces). Objects that can carry the disease include:

  • vehicles
  • equipment
  • clothing
  • water and feed

The disease can spread from wild to kept birds. Pigeons may carry pigeon paramyxovirus, which can cause Newcastle disease in kept birds.

Preventing and controlling Newcastle disease

You can help prevent the disease by:

If you report suspicion of Newcastle disease, APHA vets will investigate.

If the disease is confirmed, the outbreak will be controlled in line with the contingency plan for exotic notifiable diseases and the control strategy for notifiable avian diseases will be implemented.

Further information on prevention and control

Controls to prevent disease

What happens when a notifiable disease is suspected or confirmed

Legislation on Newcastle disease

Newcastle disease is covered by the Diseases of Poultry (England) Order 2003.