Animal by-products (ABPs) you can use to make pet food, how to provide samples, and how to package your products.
You need approval from the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA) to process animal by-products (ABPs) into pet food.
You can’t start production until you have received the approval document.
Getting ABPs to your site and storing them
You must only use suppliers and transporters that are approved or registered by the APHA.
ABPs you can’t use
There are 3 different categories of ABPs.
You must not make pet food using:
- category 1 or 2 ABPs
- catering waste
- fat from animals that passed inspection for diseases before death but failed inspection after death
ABPs you can use
You can use different ABPs depending on what type of pet food you are making.
To make raw pet food
You can only use:
- slaughterhouse material that was passed fit for humans to eat but is unwanted for commercial reasons
- fish by-products from factories and ships that prepare fish for human consumption
- game that was passed fit for humans to eat but rejected for commercial reasons, not due to disease
- material from animals that passed an ante-mortem test, that is unfit for humans to eat, eg liver with fluke
To make processed pet food
To make any processed pet food, in airtight containers or wrappers or otherwise, the ABPs you can use are:
- category 3 ABPs from carcasses passed fit for human consumption
- slaughterhouse by-products, like hides, skins, horns, feet, pig bristle, feather or blood
- heads of poultry
- milk production by-products
- materials from on-farm slaughter of rabbits or poultry
- hatchery waste, eggs, egg by-products and day-old chicks
- fish and by-products from fish processing factories
- food production by-products including degreased bones
- products of animal origin (POA) or processed animal protein (PAP) no longer intended for human consumption
- imported pet food
- ABPs from aquatic animals from factories that make food for humans
- factory-rejected pet foods of animal origin, containing ABPs or derived products
- shells from shellfish with soft tissue or flesh
- sea or land invertebrates (spineless animals, eg insects) once they don’t carry diseases that can be passed on to humans or animals
- rodents and lagomorphs (rabbits) unless they are from zoos, experimental animals, or diseased wild animals
- blood, placenta, wool, feathers, hair, horns, hoof cuts and raw milk from live animals
- aquatic animals, and parts of such animals, except sea mammals
Heat treating processed pet food for non-airtight containers
If you are making processed pet food, other than dog chews, which won’t be sealed in an airtight container, you must treat ingredients derived from animal by-products, or the final product, at 90°C.
If you meet this heat treatment condition, you can use the following ABPs:
- milk and milk-based products
- hydrolysed protein
- egg products
- blood products from disease-free animals that were passed fit for humans to eat before slaughter
- PAP, including fishmeal
- rendered fat, fish oils
- dicalcium phosphate
- tricalcium phosphate
- flavouring innards / digests
You can also make processed pet food by drying or fermentation provided your method poses no risk to public or animal health.
Talk to your local APHA office if you want to check that your own method is legal.
Processed animal protein (PAP)
PAP is made from Category 3 material, which has been treated to make it safe to use as animal feed.
PAP use is controlled by TSE (transmissible spongiform encephalopathy) regulations.
If you’re using PAP or blood products from ruminants (animals that chew cud) to make pet food:
- you must not make livestock feed on the same site
- the pet foods must be kept separate from livestock feed during storage, transport, and packaging
Making dog chews
If you’re making dog chews, you must:
- prove in sampling tests that your treatment destroys diseases like Salmonella
- prevent contamination after treatment by separating the final product from raw material
Testing samples for bacteria
You must send samples of your pet food product to an accredited laboratory, where they’ll be tested for bacteria.
You must take samples from:
- raw pet food
- dog chews
- any processed pet food that isn’t canned
You must send samples to be tested for:
How many samples to take
Take a separate sample for Salmonella and Enterobacteriaceae from each of your product lines. You must have a different product line for:
- each species of meat or offal that you process
- each species of tripe that you process
Each sample should be made up of 10 sub-samples of 30 grams taken randomly from the product line.
The frequency of sampling will depend on several factors specific to each pet food facility. The APHA will discuss this with you individually.
Packaging pet food
You must package pet food in different ways depending on what type it is.
Raw pet food
Raw pet food must be packaged in clean leak-proof packaging.
Canned pet food
You must sterilise pet food at a minimum Fc value of 3 before you can it.
Find out more about Fc value by contacting the APHA.
Dog chews must be packed in unused packaging.
Digests and flavoured innards
Digests and flavoured innards must be packed in new or sterile packaging, or containers that have been cleaned and disinfected.