Guidance

UK trade agreements with non-EU countries

Find out about the trade agreements the UK has concluded that are in effect and the progress of our discussions with other countries.

Trade agreements

As of 1 January 2021, EU trade agreements no longer apply to the UK.

The UK has sought to reproduce the effects of trading agreements that previously applied to it to ensure continuity for UK business.

Trade agreements that took effect from 1 January 2021

Agreements with the following countries and trading blocs took effect from 1 January 2021. Where the agreement has not yet been ratified, provisional application or bridging mechanisms have been put in place to ensure continuity of trade.

Agreement Country Entry into effect mechanism (1) Total UK trade with countries, 2019 (£ million) (2)
Andean countries Colombia Bridging mechanism 2,876 (total for Andean countries)
Andean countries Ecuador Full ratification 2,876 (total for Andean countries)
Andean countries Peru Full ratification 2,876 (total for Andean countries)
Cameroon (Agreement in principle) Cameroon Bridging mechanism 200
CARIFORUM trade bloc Antigua and Barbuda Provisional application 3,046 (total for CARIFORUM trade bloc)
CARIFORUM trade bloc Barbados Provisional application 3,046 (total for CARIFORUM trade bloc)
CARIFORUM trade bloc St. Kitts and Nevis Bridging mechanism 3,046 (total for CARIFORUM trade bloc)
CARIFORUM trade bloc Belize Provisional application 3,046 (total for CARIFORUM trade bloc)
CARIFORUM trade bloc Bahamas Provisional application 3,046 (total for CARIFORUM trade bloc)
CARIFORUM trade bloc Saint Lucia Provisional application 3,046 (total for CARIFORUM trade bloc)
CARIFORUM trade bloc Dominica Provisional application 3,046 (total for CARIFORUM trade bloc)
CARIFORUM trade bloc Dominican Republic Provisional application 3,046 (total for CARIFORUM trade bloc)
CARIFORUM trade bloc Grenada Provisional application 3,046 (total for CARIFORUM trade bloc)
CARIFORUM trade bloc Jamaica Provisional application 3,046 (total for CARIFORUM trade bloc)
CARIFORUM trade bloc St. Vincent and the Grenadines Provisional application 3,046 (total for CARIFORUM trade bloc)
CARIFORUM trade bloc Trinidad and Tobago Bridging mechanism 3,046 (total for CARIFORUM trade bloc)
CARIFORUM trade bloc The Republic of Guyana Provisional application 3,046 (total for CARIFORUM trade bloc)
Central America Costa Rica Full ratification 1,411 (total for Central America)
Central America El Salvador Full ratification 1,411 (total for Central America)
Central America Guatemala Full ratification 1,411 (total for Central America)
Central America Honduras Full ratification 1,411 (total for Central America)
Central America Nicaragua Full ratification 1,411 (total for Central America)
Central America Panama Full ratification 1,411 (total for Central America)
Chile Chile Full ratification 2,171
Côte d’Ivoire Côte d’Ivoire Full ratification 398
Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) trade bloc Mauritius Full ratification 1,569 (total for Eastern and Southern Africa trade bloc)
Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) trade bloc Seychelles Full ratification 1,569 (total for Eastern and Southern Africa trade bloc)
Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) trade bloc Zimbabwe Full ratification 1,569 (total for Eastern and Southern Africa trade bloc)
Egypt Egypt Provisional application 3,503
Faroe Islands Faroe Islands Full ratification 293
Georgia Georgia Full ratification 183
Iceland and Norway Iceland Provisional application 26,747 (total for Iceland and Norway)
Iceland and Norway Norway Provisional application 26,747 (total for Iceland and Norway)
Israel Israel Full ratification 5,014
Japan Japan Full ratification 14,676
Kenya (3) Kenya Bridging mechanism 1,407
Kosovo Kosovo Full ratification 10
Lebanon Lebanon Full ratification 849
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein Full ratification 159
Moldova Moldova Provisional application 395
Morocco Morocco Provisional application 2,251
North Macedonia North Macedonia Provisional application 1,774
Pacific states Fiji Provisional application 232 (total for Pacific States)
Pacific states Papua New Guinea Provisional application 232 (total for Pacific States)
Pacific states Samoa (4) Bridging mechanism 232 (total for Pacific States)
Pacific states Solomon Islands (4) Bridging mechanism 232 (total for Pacific States)
Palestinian Authority Palestinian Authority Full ratification 9
Singapore Singapore Provisional application 17,636
South Korea South Korea Full ratification 11,777
Southern Africa Customs Union and Mozambique (SACUM) trade bloc Botswana Full ratification 11,875 (total for SACUM trade bloc)
Southern Africa Customs Union and Mozambique (SACUM) trade bloc Eswatini Full ratification 11,875 (total for SACUM trade bloc)
Southern Africa Customs Union and Mozambique (SACUM) trade bloc Lesotho Full ratification 11,875 (total for SACUM trade bloc)
Southern Africa Customs Union and Mozambique (SACUM) trade bloc Mozambique Full ratification 11,875 (total for SACUM trade bloc)
Southern Africa Customs Union and Mozambique (SACUM) trade bloc Namibia Full ratification 11,875 (total for SACUM trade bloc)
Southern Africa Customs Union and Mozambique (SACUM) trade bloc South Africa Full ratification 11,875 (total for SACUM trade bloc)
Switzerland Switzerland Full ratification 37,063
Tunisia Tunisia Full ratification 561
Turkey Turkey Provisional application 18,559
Ukraine Ukraine Full ratification 1,566
Vietnam Vietnam Provisional application 5,706

Notes

1) Provisional application is a method well established in international treaty practice to bring agreements into effect ahead of entry into force. Bridging mechanisms are an alternative means to ensure continuity of trade, where the UK or treaty partners are unable to fully ratify or provisionally apply an agreement. These non-binding mechanisms include Memoranda of Understanding or Exchange of Diplomatic Notes and ensure continuity of trade.

2) Source of trade statistics: ONS UK total trade: all countries, non-seasonally adjusted April to June 2020.

3) This agreement is open to accession by other members of East African Community.

4) Samoa and the Solomon Islands have not yet acceded to the Pacific States-UK Interim Economic Partnership Agreement (pending a decision on their accession), however preferences under the agreement took effect on 1 January 2021 through a Memorandum of Understanding.

Signed trade agreements, not fully in effect

There are some trade agreements the UK has signed which are partially applied or have not fully taken effect.

Agreement Information on entry into effect
Canada Expected to enter into effect in early 2021. Preferential tariff rates are being applied.
Jordan Expected to enter into effect in early 2021. Trade takes place under the Generalised Scheme of Preferences for imports and under WTO terms for UK exports.
Mexico (1) Expected to enter into effect in early 2021. Preferential tariff rates are being applied.

Notes

(1) The UK has committed to apply preferential tariff rates on goods imported into the UK from Mexico from 1 January 2021. In return, Mexico has committed to implement a tariff rebate scheme, so that as soon as the Trade Continuity Agreement enters into force in Mexico, any businesses that have paid tariffs on goods which would attract a preference under the agreement, between 1 January and the agreement coming into force will be able to get a refund.

Trade agreements still in discussion

The following agreements are still under discussion with countries where trading agreements were in place before 1 January 2021.

For these countries:

Country or bloc Status of discussions
Albania Engagement ongoing, agreement is not yet in place. Trade takes place under WTO terms.
Algeria (1) Engagement ongoing, agreement is not yet in place. Trade takes place under the Generalised Scheme of Preferences for imports. UK exports will be subject to partner country national legislation.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (1) Engagement ongoing, agreement is not yet in place. Trade takes place under WTO terms for imports. UK exports will be subject to partner country national legislation
Ghana Engagement ongoing, agreement is not yet in place. Agreement expected to be completed shortly (2). Trade takes place under Generalised Scheme of Preferences for imports and under WTO terms for UK exports.
Montenegro Engagement ongoing, agreement is not yet in place. Trade takes place under WTO terms.
Serbia (1) Engagement ongoing, agreement is not yet in place. Trade takes place under WTO terms for imports. UK exports will be subject to partner country national legislation.

Note

(1) Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia are not members of the World Trade Organisation.

(2) On 31 December 2020 the UK and Ghana issued a joint statement. This announced that both sides had reached a consensus on the major elements of a trade agreement. Both sides are committed to making the gap in preferences as short as possible.

Trading with countries in Customs Unions with the EU

Andorra and San Marino are part of customs unions with the EU. The UK has agreed with the EU that all products originating in San Marino and all non-agricultural products (chapters 25-97) originating in Andorra are to be treated as originating in the EU under the UK-EU Trade and Cooperation Agreement as long as Andorra and San Marino apply to UK products the same preferences that the EU applies to them. These products benefit from zero tariffs, where they meet the relevant rules of origin. Trade with Andorra of agricultural products (chapters 01-24) is not in scope of the UK-EU Trade and Cooperation Agreement and takes place under WTO terms.

Mutual recognition agreements

A mutual recognition agreement (MRA) is one in which countries recognise the results of one another’s conformity assessments.

A conformity assessment is a set of processes that confirm whether a product meets the specified legal requirements. This can include testing, inspection, and certification.

The UK has signed MRAs with:

MRA coverage in trade agreements

The UK’s trade agreement with Switzerland incorporates elements of the EU-Switzerland MRA.

The UK’s trade agreement with Israel covers conformity assessment of industrial products. This means that existing arrangements with Israel remain in place.

The UK-Japan CEPA replicates the effects of the existing EU-Japan MRA.

More information

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Published 29 January 2020
Last updated 14 January 2021 + show all updates
  1. Updated to reflect the full ratification of the UK-Andean agreement with Peru.

  2. Updated to add links to the agreement documents for Mexico, Moldova, Vietnam and Turkey. Added a link to the summary of the Cameroon trade agreement.

  3. Updated to reflect the agreement in principle of the UK-Cameroon Agreement.

  4. Updated the table for Signed trade agreements, expected to be in effect from 1 January 2021 to include Turkey, Vietnam, Solomon Islands, Samoa and Republic of Guyana.

  5. Updated to reflect the signing of the UK-Moldova Agreement.

  6. Updated to make it clear how agreements will come into force on 1 January 2021.

  7. Added links to the trade agreement documents for Kenya.

  8. Added links to the trade agreement documents for Singapore, Norway and Iceland.

  9. Updated to reflect the signing of the UK-Mexico Agreement.

  10. Added links to the Egypt trade agreement documents.

  11. Updated to reflect the agreement in principle of the UK-Vietnam Agreement.

  12. Amended the progress on the agreement with Montenegro.

  13. Added links to the Canada and North Macedonia trade agreement documents.

  14. Updated to reflect the signing of the UK-Singapore Agreement.

  15. Updated to reflect the signing of the UK-Canada Trade Continuity Agreement.

  16. Updated to reflect the signing of the UK-Kenya EPA and Iceland-Norway-UK goods only agreement.

  17. Updated to reflect the signing of the UK-Egypt Association Agreement.

  18. Updated to reflect the signing of the UK-North Macedonia agreement.

  19. Amended the progress on agreements with Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia. Updated the statistics for total UK trade with countries we have signed an agreement with using latest statistics.

  20. Updated to reflect the agreement in principle of the UK-Canada Trade Continuity Agreement.

  21. Added links to the agreement documents for Côte d’Ivoire and Ukraine.

  22. Kenya added to the list of countries where trade agreements have been signed and East African Community (EAC) removed from the list of countries where trade agreements are still in discussion.

  23. Updated to reflect the signing of the UK-Japan Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA).

  24. Updated to reflect the signing of the UK-Côte d’Ivoire Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA).

  25. Updated to reflect the signing of the UK-Ukraine agreement.

  26. 'Trade agreements that have been signed' table updated with the most recent statistics from the Office for National Statistics

  27. Updated to reflect ongoing trade discussions with Turkey and Vietnam

  28. Updated the total UK trade statistics to correct an error.

  29. Updated 'Trade agreements that have been signed’ table after publication of the Office for National Statistics' UK trade statistics.

  30. Updated as the EU has notified those countries with which it has trade agreements that EU trade agreements can continue to apply to the UK during the transition period.

  31. First published.