Guidance

High consequence infectious disease: country specific risk

Listing of countries with a known occurrence of high consequence infectious disease (HCID).

How to use this guidance

The information presented below is provided for health professionals wishing to determine if there is a known HCID risk in any particular country. It will be updated as new information arises.

The information is intended as a guide only. HCID risk assessments should also consider other factors, including exposure histories, activities undertaken whilst travelling, and the areas visited within a country.

Healthcare professionals wishing to discuss a possible HCID case should contact a local infection specialist (such as a consultant in infectious diseases, microbiology or virology) in the first instance.

Infection specialists should contact the Imported Fever Service about suspected HCID cases, as appropriate, and refer to the relevant Public Health England (PHE) guidance (for which links are provided in the tables below).

Table Key

a) human and animal data only reported prior to 1990

b) serological evidence pre-1990

c) even though there is a lack of available data, Balkan countries are presumed to be endemic for CCHF

d) human and animal data of unknown date

e) countries with locally acquired human cases AND considered endemic for H5N1 in birds

Countries A to D

Country HCID Pathogen/Disease Evidence
Afghanistan CCHF Human cases
  Plague Human cases
Albania CCHF Human cases
Algeria CCHF Animals
  Plague Human cases
American Samoa No known HCIDs  
Andorra No known HCIDs  
Angola Marburg Human cases
  Plague Human cases
Anguilla No known HCIDs  
Antigua & Barbuda No known HCIDs  
Argentina Junin virus Human cases
  Andes virus Human cases
Armenia CCHF Human serology (a)
Australia No known HCIDs  
Austria No known HCIDs  
Azerbaijan Avian influenza H5N1 Human cases
  CCHF Animals
Bahamas, The No known HCIDs  
Bahrain No known HCIDs  
Bangladesh Avian influenza H5N1 Human cases
  CCHF Human cases
  Nipah virus Human cases
Barbados No known HCIDs  
Belarus No known HCIDs  
Belgium No known HCIDs  
Belize No known HCIDs  
Benin CCHF Human serology
  Lassa fever Human cases
Bermuda No known HCIDs  
Bhutan CCHF Animals
Bolivia Plague Human cases
  Machupo virus Human cases
Bosnia & Herzegovina (c) CCHF Human serology (d)
Botswana CCHF Human serology
  Plague Human cases
Brazil Plague Human cases
Brunei No known HCIDs  
Bulgaria CCHF Human cases
Burkina Faso CCHF Animals
  Lassa fever Human cases
Burma (Myanmar) Avian influenza H5N1 Human cases
  Plague Human cases
Burundi No known HCIDs  
Cambodia Avian influenza H5N1 Human cases
  Nipah virus Animals
Cameroon CCHF Human serology
  Ebola Human serology (b)
  Monkeypox Human cases
Canada No known HCIDs  
Canary Islands MERS Animals
Cape Verde No known HCIDs  
Central African Rep. CCHF Animals
  Ebola Human serology (b)
  Lassa fever Human serology (a)
  Monkeypox Human cases
Chad Ebola Human serology (b)
Chile Andes virus Human cases
China CCHF Human cases
  Avian influenza H5N1 Human cases (e)
  Avian influenza H7N9 Human cases
  Avian influenza H5N6 Human cases
  Plague Human cases
  Severe fever with thrombocytopaenia syndrome (SFTS) Human cases
  SARS Human cases
Colombia No known HCIDs  
Comoros No known HCIDs  
Congo, Republic. of the CCHF Human serology
  Ebola Human cases
  Lassa fever Human serology
  Monkeypox Human cases
Cook Islands No known HCIDs  
Costa Rica No known HCIDs  
Cote d’Ivoire CCHF Human serology (d)
  Ebola Human cases
  Lassa fever Human cases
  Monkeypox Human cases (a)
Croatia CCHF Human cases (a)
Cuba No known HCIDs  
Curacao No known HCIDs  
Cyprus No known HCIDs  
Czech Republic No known HCIDs  
Dem Rep of Congo CCHF Human cases
  Ebola Human cases
  Lassa fever Human serology
  Marburg Human cases
  Monkeypox Human cases
  Plague Human cases
Denmark No known HCIDs  
Djibouti Avian influenza H5N1 Human cases
  CCHF Animals
Dominica No known HCIDs  
Dominican Republic No known HCIDs  

Countries E to H

Country HCID Pathogen/Disease Evidence
Ecuador Plague Human cases
Egypt Avian influenza H5N1 Human cases (e)
  CCHF Humans
  MERS Animals
  Plague Human cases (a)
El Salvador No known HCIDs  
Equatorial Guinea CCHF Human serology (a)
  Ebola Human serology (b)
Eritrea No known HCIDs  
Estonia No known HCIDs  
Ethiopia CCHF Animals
  Ebola Human serology (b)
  MERS Animals
Fiji No known HCIDs  
Finland No known HCIDs  
France CCHF Animals
French Guiana No known HCIDs  
French Polynesia No known HCIDs  
Gabon CCHF Animals
  Ebola Human cases
  Marburg Animals
  Monkeypox Human cases
Gambia, The CCHF Human serology (d)
Georgia CCHF Human cases
Germany No known HCIDs  
Ghana CCHF Human serology
  Lassa fever Human cases
Greece CCHF Human cases
Greenland No known HCIDs  
Grenada No known HCIDs  
Guadeloupe No known HCIDs  
Guam No known HCIDs  
Guatemala No known HCIDs  
Guinea CCHF Animals
  Ebola Human cases
  Lassa fever Human cases
Guinea-Bissau CCHF Human serology (d)
Guyana No known HCIDs  
Haiti No known HCIDs  
Honduras No known HCIDs  
Hong Kong SARS Human cases
Hungary CCHF Animals

Countries I to L

Country HCID Pathogen/Disease Evidence
Iceland No known HCIDs  
India CCHF Human cases
  Nipah virus Human cases
  Plague Human cases
Indonesia Avian influenza H5N1 Human cases (e)
  Ebola Animals
  Marburg Animals
  Plague Human cases
  Nipah virus Animals
Iran CCHF Human cases
  MERS Human cases
  Plague Animals (a)
Iraq CCHF Human cases
  Avian influenza H5N1 Human cases
  MERS Animals
  Plague Human cases
Ireland No known HCIDs  
Israel No known HCIDs  
Italy Avian influenza H7N7 Human cases
Jamaica No known HCIDs  
Japan Severe fever with thrombocytopaenia syndrome (SFTS) Human cases
Jordan MERS Human cases
  Plague Human cases
Kazakhstan CCHF Human cases
  Plague Human cases
Kenya CCHF Human cases
  Ebola Human serology (b)
  Marburg Human cases (a)
  MERS Human serology
  Plague Human cases
Kiribati No known HCIDs  
Korea, North No known HCIDs  
Korea, South Severe fever with thrombocytopaenia syndrome (SFTS) Human cases
Kosovo CCHF Human cases
Kuwait CCHF Human cases
  MERS Human cases
Kyrgyzstan CCHF Human cases
  Plague Human cases
Laos Avian influenza H5N1 Human cases
  Plague Human cases
Latvia No known HCIDs  
Lebanon Plague Human cases (a)
Lesotho CCHF Human serology (d)
  Plague Human cases (a)
Liberia Ebola Human cases
  Lassa fever Human cases
  Monkeypox Human cases
Libya Plague Human cases
Liechtenstein No known HCIDs  
Lithuania No known HCIDs  
Luxembourg No known HCIDs  

Countries M to P

Country HCID Pathogen/Disease Evidence
Macau No known HCIDs  
Macedonia CCHF Human cases (a)
Madagascar CCHF Animals
  Ebola Human serology (b)
  Plague Human cases
Malawi Plague Human cases
Malaysia Nipah virus Human cases
Maldives No known HCIDs  
Mali CCHF Animals
  Lassa fever Human cases
Malta No known HCIDs  
Marshall Islands No known HCIDs  
Mauritania CCHF Human cases
  Plague Human cases (a)
Mauritius No known HCIDs  
Mexico No known HCIDs  
Micronesia, Fed. St. No known HCIDs  
Moldova CCHF Human cases (a)
Monaco No known HCIDs  
Mongolia CCHF Human serology
  Plague Human cases
Montenegro CCHF Presumed endemic (c)
Morocco CCHF Animals
  Plague Human cases (a)
Mozambique CCHF Human serology
  Plague Human cases
Namibia CCHF Human cases
  Plague Human cases
Nauru No known HCIDs  
Nepal Plague Human cases
Netherlands Avian influenza H7N7 Human cases
New Zealand No known HCIDs  
Nicaragua No known HCIDs  
Niger Ebola Human serology (b)
Nigeria Avian influenza H5N1 Human cases
  CCHF Human cases
  Ebola Human serology (b)
  Lassa fever Human cases
  MERS Animals
  Monkeypox Human cases
Norway No known HCIDs  
Oman CCHF Human cases
  MERS Human cases
Pakistan Avian influenza H5N1 Human cases
  CCHF Human cases
  Plague Human cases
Palau No known HCIDs  
Panama No known HCIDs  
Papua New Guinea No known HCIDs  
Paraguay No known HCIDs  
Peru Plague Human cases
  Andes virus Human serology
Philippines No known HCIDs  
Poland No known HCIDs  
Portugal CCHF Human serology (a)
Puerto Rico No known HCIDs  

Countries Q to T

Country HCID Pathogen/Disease Evidence
Qatar MERS Human cases
Romania CCHF Animals
Russia CCHF Human cases
  Plague Human cases
Rwanda CCHF  
Saint Kitts & Nevis No known HCIDs  
Saint Lucia No known HCIDs  
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines No known HCIDs  
Samoa No known HCIDs  
San Marino No known HCIDs  
Sao Tome & Principe No known HCIDs  
Saudi Arabia CCHF Human cases
  MERS Human cases
  Plague Human cases
Senegal CCHF Human cases
  Lassa fever Human serology (a)
  Plague Human cases (a)
Serbia CCHF Human cases
Seychelles No known HCIDs  
Sierra Leone Ebola Human cases
  Lassa fever Human cases
  Marburg Animals
  Monkeypox Human cases
Singapore No known HCIDs  
Sint Maarten No known HCIDs  
Slovakia No known HCIDs  
Slovenia CCHF Presumed endemic (c)
Solomon Islands No known HCIDs  
Somalia CCHF Animals
  MERS Animals
South Africa CCHF Human cases
  Plague Human cases (a)
South Sudan CCHF Human serology (d)
  Ebola Human cases
Spain CCHF Human cases
Sri Lanka No known HCIDs  
State of Palestine No known HCIDs  
Sudan CCHF Human cases
  MERS Animals
  Monkeypox Human cases
Suriname No known HCIDs  
Swaziland CCHF Human serology (d)
Sweden No known HCIDs  
Switzerland No known HCIDs  
Syria CCHF Animals
  Plague Human cases (a)
Taiwan Avian influenza H5N6 Animals
Tajikistan CCHF Human cases
  Plague Animals (a)
Tanzania CCHF Human serology (a)
  Plague Human cases
Thailand Avian influenza H5N1 Human cases
  Nipah virus Animals
Timor Leste Nipah virus Animals
Togo Lassa fever Human cases
Tonga No known HCIDs  
Trinidad & Tobago No known HCIDs  
Tunisia CCHF Human serology
  Plague Human cases (a)
Turkey Avian influenza H5N1 Human cases
  CCHF Human cases
Turkmenistan CCHF Animals
  Plague Human cases
Tuvalu No known HCIDs  

Countries U to Z

Country HCID Pathogen/Disease Evidence
Uganda CCHF Human cases
  Ebola Human cases
  Lassa fever Human serology (a)
  Marburg Human cases
  Plague Human cases
Ukraine CCHF Human cases
United Arab Emirates CCHF Human cases
  MERS Human cases
United Kingdom No known HCIDs  
United States Plague Human cases
Uruguay No known HCIDs  
Uzbekistan CCHF Human cases
  Plague Human cases
Vanuatu No known HCIDs  
Venezuela No known HCIDs  
Vietnam Avian influenza H5N1 Human cases (e)
  Plague Human cases
Western Sahara No known HCIDs  
Yemen MERS Human cases
  Plague Human cases (a)
Zambia Plague Human cases
  Lujo virus Human cases
Zimbabwe CCHF Human serology (a)
  Ebola Human serology (b)
  Marburg Human cases (a)
  Plague Human cases
Published 30 January 2019