Electricity meter accuracy disputes

The Office for Product Safety and Standards is responsible for metering accuracy: ensuring that meters register the correct quantity of electricity consumed.

Energy bills

The measurements taken from the readings of electricity meters are used to calculate the amount of energy supplied to your home and will appear on the energy bill sent to you by your supplier(s).

Accuracy of meters is something that the Office for Product Safety and Standards (Safety & Standards) takes seriously as it ensures that consumers pay for the amount of energy they actually use and facilitates fair trade and competition. However, Safety & Standards is only responsible for electricity meter accuracy and complaints about billing should firstly be directed to the supplier concerned. The Citizens Advice consumer service can assist you with this and provide independent advice on energy supply. If your supplier is unable to resolve your dispute then the Energy Ombudsman can investigate.

Although meter accuracy is fundamental to the energy billing process, there are many factors, unrelated to the accuracy of the meter that may significantly change the amount you are required to pay when you receive a bill from your supplier. Some examples are;

Energy price changes

It is clear that fluctuations in energy wholesale prices will flow through to the consumer. This is of particular impact when energy prices are rising and we have seen, for example, significant increases in the average domestic electricity bill. It is critical you consider this factor when assessing the reasons for higher bills.

Estimated or incorrect meter readings

Where bills are issued more frequently than actual meter readings are recorded, suppliers can use estimates of energy used, based mainly on past consumption, as the basis of the charges. As there can be a lengthy period between supplier readings, it is important you ensure that the estimated reading is close to that actually recorded by the meter. You can do this by recording the reading on the meter yourself and comparing this reading against the estimate soon after you receive your bill. If a large difference is found, contact your supplier who should make adjustments to your account. If your actual consumption is not similar to that estimated by your supplier the gap will need to be closed at the time the meter is actually read. This may mean that your supplier will require more money for the energy actually used or will arrange some form of refund where use is less than estimated.

There is also a chance that a meter could be incorrectly read. Once again, a quick check of the reading stated within the bill against the register of the meter will ensure that errors are quickly detected.

Changes in consumption

External influences or changes to your circumstances may cause a change in the amount of energy you use.

The many reasons for a change in consumption may include:

  • particularly colder or milder seasonal weather causing you to use more or less energy
  • a change in circumstances (e.g. illness, new baby, working at home etc.)
  • a faulty appliance using more energy than it should because it is not operating correctly
  • changing types of appliance (i.e. moving from gas to electricity or vice versa)

Electricity ‘meter determination’

Electricity meters are generally reliable and major operational faults are rare. However, if you have considered all of the potential reasons noted above that could have caused a change in your energy bill; there is a chance that your meter may have developed a defect causing it to register inaccurately.

You should then contact your supplier who is required to investigate your complaint and make best efforts to resolve the problem (including the possible installation of a ‘check meter’ adjacent to the disputed billing meter). You may also want to consider contacting Citizens Advice for independent advice on energy supply.

As a final option when all other routes to settle the problem/dispute have failed, on request, the supplier will make arrangements for the accuracy of the meter to be verified by an independent meter examiner appointed by Safety & Standards under Schedule 7 of the Electricity Act 1989.

This is known as a ‘meter determination’ and should be requested through your electricity supplier. However, it should be noted that the vast majority of all electricity meters submitted for determination are found to be operating within statutory limits.

Electricity meter testing

Electricity meters are initially tested on-site. Your electricity supplier will carry out a preliminary accuracy check and, if necessary, arrange for one of their representatives to discuss any specific concerns.

If concerns over the meter persist, your supplier can facilitate a request for a meter determination whereby an independent meter examiner will review the facts surrounding the dispute and visit the property to carry out tests on the meter and the meter installation. Meter examiners are employed by SGS (UK) Ltd under contract to Safety & Standards to provide an independent meter examination service.

The independent meter examiner and a representative from the supplier will make arrangements to visit the property at a mutually convenient time. The meter examiner will conduct a series of tests on the meter in-situ and the supplier’s representative will then remove the disputed meter and install a replacement. The meter examiner will then discuss the circumstances surrounding the dispute with the consumer. Finally, the meter examiner will take the disputed meter away for further testing at an independent laboratory. All consumers can witness their meter being tested if they wish.

Following this, the meter examiner will analyse the results and issue a determination detailing their findings. Copies of the determination will be sent to the consumer, the electricity supplier and the owner of the meter (if applicable).

The determination will state if the disputed meter was:

  • of an approved pattern or construction, installed in an approved manner and certified (where necessary)
  • registering within or outside the prescribed statutory limits (currently +2.5% and -3.5% for GB nationally approved meters) together with any other applicable information
  • if registering outside statutory limits the meter examiner will make an estimate as to how long the meter has been so operating

Please note, for electricity meters approved under the Measuring Instruments Directive MID, the prescribed statutory limits are in Annex V of the Directive as detailed under paragraph 5, Schedule 1 of The Measuring Instruments Regulations, SI 2016/1153.

Determination process

The following flowchart shows the process for testing electricity meters:

Electricity meter determination flow chart

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After the test

Depending on the findings of the independent meter examiner, which will be set out in the determination report, the supplier will take forward measures to conclude the issue. This may include a plan to either compensate the consumer for over-billing or prepare a payment plan for the consumer where under-billing has occurred.

Possible charges

There is no direct cost incurred by the consumer for the meter determination process although the supplier may charge for the removal of the disputed meter and the installation of a replacement. This charge will be refunded if the disputed meter is found to be operating outside the statutory limits (i.e. inaccurately).

Having considered these costs, if you wish to proceed with the meter accuracy test, you should arrange this through your electricity supplier.

Potentially lower your electricity bills

There are some things you can do right now to ensure you start receiving lower energy bills:

  • take and submit your own meter reading rather than accepting an estimated bill
  • ask your supplier for the cost of energy at different times of the day and ensure that you are being charged at the most appropriate tariff for your manner of consumption and the equipment you have connected
  • where possible use energy at times of the day when charges are lower (i.e. use of the washing machine or dishwasher)
  • keep a conscious note of what appliances are switched on and for how long they are on
  • turn your TV or computer off rather than leaving them on standby, leaving them on standby will still use energy

Further energy efficiency advice can be obtained from your supplier or Citizens Advice.

Electricity determination reports

Around 250 electricity meters are submitted for determination each year and Safety & Standards publishes the results of these tests on a regular basis. Safety & Standards does not use this data for any formal purpose other than to initiate action with meter manufacturers and suppliers when meter examiners identify systematic faults with certain meter types.

The information within these reports is not intended to represent the overall accuracy of electricity meters in Great Britain and the following points should be considered:

  • the meters tested were initiated by the consumer or the supplier in circumstances where it was suspected that the meter is measuring erroneously – the sample is not representative of the whole meter population
  • only a relatively small sample of meters are tested annually and this needs to be considered against the overall population of electricity meters in Great Britain that is in excess of 27 million

It is important that these factors are considered in context with the information provided.

Contact us

Safety & Standards publishes a range of information and guidance on the legislation that we are responsible for. If you have a specific enquiry regarding the accuracy of your electricity meter, we recommend you complete the online enquiry form, choose the relevant legislation and follow the on screen instructions.

Alternatively you can contact the Safety & Standards helpdesk on 0121 345 1218.

It is open:

  • Monday to Thursday 09:00 to 17:00
  • Friday 09:00 to 16:00

Or in writing to:

Office for Product Safety and Standards
Lower Ground Floor
Victoria Square House
Victoria Square
B2 4AJ

Published 13 March 2014
Last updated 24 June 2014 + show all updates
  1. The title of this guide has been amended to reflect that NMO is responsible for electricity and gas metering accuracy and that Ofgem are the energy regulators and are responsible for all aspects relating to energy billing. NMO are unable to comment on billing issues as this is outside the scope of our responsibilities. This responsibility instead lies with Ofgem ( Alternatively you may also want to consider contacting the Citizens Advice Bureau ( or the Energy Ombudsman ( for independent advice on energy supply.
  2. First published.