How the UK supports the use of combined heat and power (CHP) or 'cogeneration', which avoids network losses and reduces emissions.
Combined heat and power (CHP) is a highly efficient process that captures and utilises the heat that is a by-product of the electricity generation process.
By generating heat and power simultaneously, CHP can reduce carbon emissions by up to 30% compared to the separate means of conventional generation via a boiler and power station.
The heat generated during this process is supplied to an appropriately matched heat demand that would otherwise be met by a conventional boiler. CHP systems are highly efficient, making use of the heat which would otherwise be wasted when generating electrical or mechanical power. This allows heat requirements to be met that would otherwise require additional fuel to be burnt.
For many organisations, CHP is the measure that offers the most significant single opportunity to reduce energy costs and to improve environmental performance with existing users of CHP typically saving around 20% of their energy costs.
What are the advantages of CHP?
- CHP typically has an efficiency of over 80%
- operators typically saving around 20% on energy bills
- operators can save up to 30% on carbon emissions
- transmission and distribution losses are reduced
- increases fuel supply security
CHP Focus is a BEIS initiative, that is free at the point of use, which supports the development of combined heat and power in the UK. It supports the development of CHP by providing information, education and online tools that assist CHP developers, whether they are newcomers to CHP or those that are familiar and looking for specific information.
It does this by offering a helpline service, a CHP Site Assessment Tool, the UK CHP Development Map, a CHP Scheme Database, a suite of CHP developer guides, a series of CHP case studies and through CHP outreach events.
See the following sections of this page to access CHP Focus content.
CHP Focus Helpline
A free support helpline, providing guidance on CHP:
Helpline email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Helpline number: 01235 75 3033
Mon-Fri 9am - 4pm
CHP Site Assessment tool
This free tool allows users to get an indicative assessment and review potential options for installing CHP on a particular site. It has been designed for users who have limited knowledge of CHP. It guides the user through the information required to carry out an indicative assessment, showing whether a particular site warrants further investigation.
You can use the CHP Site Assessment Tool to review options for installing CHP on a particular site.
CHP Development Map
The UK CHP Development Map is designed to geographically represent the heat demand across various sectors with the United Kingdom.
You can use the CHP Development Map to find about heat demand for a given area.
CHP Scheme Database
The data published on this site was obtained via the CHPQA programme from schemes who gave their permission for the information to be published. The following data for CHP schemes is published:
- CHP Site Name
- Prime Mover
- Industry Sector
- Generating Capacity (kWe)
You can use the CHP Scheme Database to view existing CHP sites.
CHP Developer Guides
Guides for CHP developers:
Part 1: CHP Project Development
Part 2: CHP Technologies
Part 3: CHP Environmental
Part 4: CHP Operation and Maintenance
Part 5: CHP Finance
Part 6: Additional Guidance for Renewable CHP
CHP Project Development
The development process requires a significant commitment in terms of time, as well as specialist and multidisciplinary expertise, incurring both cost and effort. The development process for a CHP project depends on a scheme’s complexity; see the CHP developers guide for detailed information on packaged, custom and renewable CHP.
A CHP plant consists essentially of an electrical generator combined with equipment for recovering and using the heat produced by that generator. The generator may be a prime mover such as a gas turbine or a reciprocating engine. Alternatively, it may consist of a steam turbine generating power from high-pressure steam produced in a boiler. In some cases, a CHP scheme may be a combination of prime mover(s), boiler(s) and steam turbine(s). See the detailed guide to CHP technologies for further information on:
- Packaged CHP
- Custom CHP
- Micro CHP and
- Renewable CHP
CHP Environmental Issues
For any given CHP plant and operating pattern, annual energy consumption/production can be used as the basis for calculating reductions in primary energy consumption and emissions that arise from the installation and operation of the CHP unit. See the detailed guide on environmental aspects of CHP installations including:
- current legislation
- relevant atmospheric emissions data, and
- meeting environmental requirements
CHP Operation and Maintenance
Once the CHP package has been installed, it needs to be operated and maintained correctly if it is to provide the planned levels of cost savings. There are examples of CHP plants that have not achieved their expectations, due to a lack of effective supervision and maintenance.
This guide on CHP operations and maintenance provides an in depth view of plant operations, plant maintenance, and performance monitoring and assessment.
There are several approaches to costing and financing a CHP development.
The guide to CHP Finance reviews methods for establishing the capital, fuel and maintenance costs. The impact of financing CHP on a company’s balance sheet is reviewed. The guide covers the common methods of financing the investment of CHP and show how to compare the projected performance of CHP against conventional methods of heat and electrical generation.
Government support for renewable CHP has increased the number of such schemes and has diversified the range of CHP prime movers in use.
The additional guidance for renewable CHP has been developed to complement the other guidance and provide additional information to suit the recent developments in renewable CHP. The content in this guide focuses on CHP schemes that use ORC and steam screw expander technologies.
A series of selected CHP case studies are available.
CHP Outreach Events
Programme: Reducing energy costs with Combined Heat & Power
- Location: Birmingham
Date: Tuesday, 16 June 2015
See the presentations for the CHP Outreach workshops’ held in Birmingham.
- Location: Manchester
Date: Thursday 12 March 2015
- Location: London
- Date: Tuesday 10 March 2015
See the presentations for the CHP Outreach workshops held in London and Manchester.
EC Directive on promotion of CHP in the internal energy market
This Directive, developed by the European Commission (EC) in 2004, aims to promote high-efficiency cogeneration given the potential benefits with regard to saving primary energy, avoiding network losses and reducing emissions, in particular of greenhouse gases. In addition, efficient use of energy by CHP can contribute positively to the security of energy supply. The Directive supports the installation of CHP where there is a significant demand for heat. Its main measures include:
- a single methodology for establishing high efficiency CHP across EU member states
- a ‘guarantee of origin’ for electricity from CHP sources
- obligations on EU member states to analyse national potentials for high-efficiency CHP and report progress on its development
- evaluation of the different ways EU member states support CHP
- ensure equitable or preferential access for CHP on the electricity transmission and distribution networks
- encouraging EU member states to evaluate their own legislative and regulatory framework with a view to removing barriers to the uptake of CHP
Read the Directive in full: European Union Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency
UK involvement in the Directive
The department supports the aims of the Directive, and were actively involved in its development. Our priority is to ensure it benefits CHP development in the UK.
For any technical enquiry, email CHP Focus email@example.com
Ricardo Energy and Environment provide an enquiry service for CHP developers on behalf of BEIS.
You can use the public register of Council documents to read about the latest developments.
For more information, email firstname.lastname@example.org