Brunei: migrant health guide

Advice and guidance on the health needs of migrant patients from Brunei Darussalam for healthcare practitioners.

Main messages

If the patient is new to the UK:

Screen all new entrants, including children, for tuberculosis (TB).

Consider screening for hepatitis B, particularly among those who have recently arrived. Brunei Darussalam has an intermediate prevalence.

There is a high risk of typhoid infection in Brunei Darussalam.

Consider nutritional and metabolic concerns.

Infectious diseases


Ensure that all patients, especially children, are up-to-date with the UK immunisation schedule. See Immunisation collection with complete schedules.


There is a high incidence of TB in Brunei Darussalam (40 to 499 cases per 100,000), so:

  • screen all new entrants (including children) for TB according to NICE guidelines
  • refer to TB services promptly if screening is positive
  • maintain long term vigilance for symptoms of TB even if initial screening is negative
  • be aware that TB is a notifiable disease

Sexually transmitted infections and HIV

Take other risk factors into consideration when assessing likely health needs relating to HIV and STIs (no data are available on HIV prevalence in Brunei Darussalam).

Hepatitis B

Brunei Darussalam has an intermediate prevalence of hepatitis B, so:

  • consider screening for hepatitis B, particularly those who have recently arrived
  • offer screening for hepatitis B to all pregnant women during each pregnancy
  • immunise appropriately babies born to mothers who are hepatitis B positive, and follow-up accordingly
  • be aware that the UK has a universal infant immunisation programme for hepatitis B and a selective immunisation programme for higher risk groups

Hepatitis C

The prevalence of hepatitis C is higher than the UK, so consider screening for hepatitis C if other risk factors apply.


There is a very low risk of malaria in Brunei Darussalam, due to P. falciparum and P. vivax, so:


There is a high risk of typhoid infection in Brunei Darussalam, so:

  • ensure that travellers to Brunei Darussalam are offered typhoid immunisation and advice on prevention of enteric fever
  • remember enteric fever in the differential diagnosis of illness in patients with a recent history of travel to or from Brunei Darussalam

Travel plans and advice

Ask opportunistically about any travel plans the patient may have to visit friends and relatives in their country of origin. People who travel to visit friends and relatives (VFR travellers) should visit the Foreign and Commonwealth Office for overseas travel advice and National Travel Health Network and Centre (NaTHNaC) for country specific travel advice prior to leaving the UK.

Nutritional and metabolic concerns


There is a moderate risk of anaemia in adults (estimated prevalence in non-pregnant women is 20 to 40%) and a mild risk in pre-school children (estimated prevalence 5 to 20%), so:

  • be alert to the possibility of anaemia in recently arrived migrants, particularly women and pre-school children
  • test as clinically indicated

Vitamin D

Consider the possibility of vitamin D deficiency in people who may be at risk due to:

  • darker skin
  • those who are not often outdoors
  • those who cover up most of their skin when outdoors

Women’s health

Reproductive health indicators

Reproductive health indicator UK Brunei Darussalam
Number of children per woman¹ 1.7 1.8

¹lifetime average

No data are available on:

  • contraceptive use
  • mammography screening rates
  • cervical cancer screening rates

Country profile

Health indicators and health care

WHO Global Health Observatory has a summary of health indicators and health care in Brunei Darussalam.

Culture, politics and history

BBC News and The World Factbook provide background information on the culture, politics and history of Brunei Darussalam.


The main languages used in Brunei Darussalam are:

  • Malay (Bahasa Melayu)¹
  • English
  • Chinese dialects


Source: The World Factbook.


Religion Population (%)
Muslim¹ 78.8
Christian 8.7
Buddhist 7.8
Other² 4.7

¹official; ²includes indigenous beliefs

Source: The World Factbook

Migration to the UK

There were almost 5,000 people from Brunei Darussalam living in England and Wales at the time of the 2011 Census.

Published 31 July 2014
Last updated 26 August 2021 + show all updates
  1. Updated country guidance on prevalence of communicable diseases and other health topics.

  2. First published.