Guidance

Antigua and Barbuda: migrant health guide

Advice and guidance on the health needs of migrant patients from Antigua and Barbuda for healthcare practitioners.

Main messages

If the patient is new to the UK:

  • explain to them how the NHS works
  • discuss how this compares to the healthcare system they’ve been used to

Ensure that all patients are up-to-date with the UK immunisation schedule.

Consider screening for hepatitis B, particularly among those who have recently arrived, because Antigua and Barbuda has an intermediate prevalence.

Ask opportunistically about any travel plans the patient may have to visit friends and relatives in their country of origin, and see National Travel Health Network and Centre (NaTHNaC), or the Health Protection Scotland websites (TRAVAX and fitfortravel), for travel advice.

Infectious diseases

Immunisation

Ensure that all patients, especially children, are up-to-date with the UK immunisation schedule. See immunisation collection with complete schedules.

Tuberculosis (TB)

There is a low incidence of TB in Antigua and Barbuda (<40 cases/100,000), so:

  • routine screening for TB is not required
  • consider testing in patients (including children) who show signs and symptoms
  • be aware that TB is a notifiable disease

Sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV

Take other risk factors into consideration when assessing likely health needs relating to HIV and STIs (no data is available on HIV prevalence in Antigua and Barbuda).

Hepatitis B

Antigua and Barbuda has an intermediate prevalence of hepatitis B, so:

  • consider screening for hepatitis B, particularly those who have recently arrived
  • offer screening for hepatitis B to all pregnant women during each pregnancy
  • immunise appropriately babies born to mothers who are hepatitis B positive, and follow-up accordingly
  • be aware that the UK has a selective immunisation programme for hepatitis B

Hepatitis C

Antigua and Barbuda has a higher prevalence of hepatitis C than the UK, so consider screening for hepatitis C if other risk factors apply.

Travel plans and advice

Ask opportunistically about any travel plans the patient may have to visit friends and relatives in their country of origin, and see National Travel Health Network and Centre (NaTHNaC), or the Health Protection Scotland websites (TRAVAX and fitfortravel), for travel advice.

Typhoid

There is a risk of typhoid infection in Antigua and Barbuda, so:

  • ensure that travellers to Antigua and Barbuda are offered typhoid immunisation and advice on prevention of enteric fever
  • remember enteric fever in the differential diagnosis of illness in patients with a recent history of travel to-or-from Antigua and Barbuda

Helminths

There is a risk of helminth infections in Antigua and Barbuda, including soil transmitted helminthiasis.

Women’s health

Reproductive health indicators

Reproductive health indicator UK Antigua and Barbuda
Number of children per woman¹ 2 2

¹lifetime average

No data is available on:

  • contraceptive use
  • mammography screening rates
  • cervical cancer screening rates

Nutritional and metabolic concerns

Anaemia

There is a moderate risk of anaemia in adults (estimated prevalence in non-pregnant women is 20 to 40%) and pre-school children (estimated prevalence is 20 to 40%), so:

  • be alert to the possibility of anaemia in recently arrived migrants, particularly women and pre-school children
  • test as clinically indicated

Vitamin D

Consider the possibility of vitamin D deficiency in people who may be at risk due to:

  • covering their body for cultural or religious reasons (lack of sunlight)
  • skin colour
  • diet (vegetarian/vegan)

Vitamin A

There may be a risk of vitamin A deficiency in Antigua and Barbuda.

Country profile

Health indicators and health care

WHO Global Health Observatory has a summary of health indicators and health care in Antigua and Barbuda.

Culture, politics and history

BBC News and The World Factbook for background information on the culture, politics and history of Antigua and Barbuda.

Languages

The main languages used in Antigua and Barbuda are:

  • English (official)
  • local dialects

Source: The World Factbook.


Find out about language interpretation.

Religions

Religion Population (%)¹
Protestant² 76.4
Roman Catholic 10.4
None³ 5.8
Other Christian 5.4
Other 2

¹2001 census; ²Anglican 25.7%, Seventh-Day Adventist 12.3%, Pentecostal 10.6%, Moravian 10.5%, Methodist 7.9%, Baptist 4.9%, Church of God 4.5%; ³or unspecified

Source: The World Factbook.

Migration to the UK

There were almost 4,000 people from Antigua and Barbuda living in the UK at the time of the 2011 Census.

Source: Office for National Statistics

Published 31 July 2014