How to spot anthrax, what to do if you suspect it and measures to prevent its spread.
Applies to England, Scotland and Wales
Anthrax affects mammals and some species of birds.
The previous outbreak in livestock in Great Britain was in 2015.
Anthrax is a notifiable animal disease. If you suspect it you must report it immediately by calling the Defra Rural Services Helpline on 03000 200 301. In Wales, contact 0300 303 8268. In Scotland, contact your local Field Services Office. Failure to do so is an offence.
How to spot anthrax
In cattle and sheep
Cattle and sheep can die quickly from anthrax, but their carcasses may show no obvious signs of the disease.
But the length of the illness varies and some animals may have signs of illness for several days before death.
In such cases the main clinical signs are:
- high temperature, shivering or twitching
- harsh dry cough
- blood in dung or in nostrils
- decrease or complete loss of milk
- bright staring eyes
- colicky pains
- dejection and loss of appetite
In pigs and horses
Anthrax can cause death in pigs and horses, though less quickly than in cattle and sheep.
The main clinical signs of anthrax in pigs and horses are:
- hot painful swellings in the throat area
- sudden colic pain in horses
- loss of appetite in pigs
Risk to humans
Anthrax symptoms begin with a flu-like illness.
This is then followed by respiratory difficulties.
Direct contact with anthrax can cause raised boil-like lesions on the skin which develop a black centre. This skin infection normally responds to early treatment with antibiotics.
If you inhale anthrax spores, they can cause damage to the lungs, which is often fatal.
How anthrax is spread
Anthrax is spread when its spores are inhaled, ingested, or come into contact with skin lesions.
The spores can survive for decades or even centuries.
They are found on infected animal carcasses, wool, hair and hides.
Preventing and controlling anthrax
Talk to your vet before moving or disposing of carcasses after a sudden or unexplained death.
You can also help to prevent anthrax by practising strict biosecurity on your premises.
If you suspect anthrax
If you suspect anthrax:
- contact your local APHA office immediately and isolate the animal or carcass
- do not move, skin or open the carcass of any suspect animal
- disinfect blood or other fluids from any suspect animal, as soon as possible, with a Defra approved disinfectant
- do not kill or bleed any sick animals
- watch any animals that have been in contact with the suspect animal, and isolate them if they show signs of infection
- pay particular attention to cows, as humans can be infected by drinking contaminated milk
If anthrax is confirmed
If anthrax is confirmed, there are legal powers to control the spread of the disease during an outbreak.
If you think your animals will be continually exposed to anthrax, for example, after an outbreak, talk to your vet about using an antibiotic or a vaccine.
Your local authority will pay for the disposal of any diseased carcasses.
Further information on prevention and control
Legislation relating to anthrax
The main domestic legislation on anthrax is The Anthrax Order of 1991.