2016 Key stage 1: assessment and reporting arrangements (ARA)

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Section 8: Teacher assessment

Includes what teachers must assess, details of the interim frameworks, pupils working below the standard of the national curriculum, moderation and reporting

8 Teacher assessment

Teacher assessment (TA) is the main focus for end of KS1 assessment and reporting. It is carried out as part of teaching and learning.

TA provides a judgement that is based on knowledge of how the pupil has performed over time and in a variety of contexts.

In 2016, teacher assessments must be reported using the standards set out in the interim teacher assessment frameworks.

Headteachers must submit their KS1 TA outcomes to their LA by Thursday 30 June 2016.

Schools will be informed if they are going to get a moderation visit on or after 20 May 2016. LAs will carry out the visits from 23 May to 30 June 2016. LAs must submit the data via Collect to the department by the end of July 2016. LAs must submit the data via Collect to the department by the end of July 2016.

8.1 What teachers must assess

At the end of KS1, teachers must make their judgements for each eligible pupil, taking into account the pupil’s progress and performance throughout the key stage. They must base their TA judgement on a broad range of evidence from across the curriculum for each pupil and use their knowledge of a pupil’s work over time, taking into account the pupil’s

  • written, practical and oral classwork
  • results of the statutory KS1 tests
  • homework

Teachers may not be able to provide a full TA judgement for some pupils, eg because of lengthy periods of absence. They will still need to report a TA code when they submit their TA data.

8.2 Interim teacher assessment frameworks

Following the removal of teacher assessment levels, the interim teacher assessment frameworks are to support teachers in making robust and accurate judgements for pupils at the end of KS1 in 2016.

The interim teacher assessment frameworks are for 2015 to 2016 only. The DfE is evaluating options for future years.

The interim frameworks set out the standard(s) a pupil will be assessed against at the end of the key stage for reading, writing, mathematics and science. Teachers must refer to the interim teacher assessment frameworks to fulfill their statutory duty to report at the end of the key stage.

The frameworks contain a number of ‘pupil can’ statements such as, ‘The pupil can write a narrative about their own and others’ experiences (real and fictional), after discussion with the teacher using sentences with different forms in their writing (statements, questions, exclamations and commands)’.

The evidence must show that the pupil demonstrates attainment of all the ‘pupil can’ statements within the standard they have been awarded. Teachers must be confident the pupil meets the ‘pupil can’ statements in the preceding standards but there is no requirement to produce specific evidence for all of them. It is likely that the pupil’s work for the standard they have been awarded will also evidence the ‘pupil can’ statements of the preceding standard(s).

Frameworks for English reading, writing and mathematics

For KS1 English reading, English writing and mathematics, teacher assessment is the primary outcome used for accountability and teachers should refer to the interim frameworks. The frameworks contain 3 standards:

  • working towards the expected standard
  • working at the expected standard
  • working at greater depth within the expected standard

Pupils will be grouped into 4 categories for accountability; the 3 categories above plus an additional category for those pupils that do not meet the ‘working towards’ standard.

Framework for science

For KS1 science, where results are not used for formal accountability, the framework contains 1 standard: working at the expected standard. Pupils will be grouped into 2 categories; the ‘working at the expected standard’ category plus an additional category for those pupils that do not meet that standard.

8.3 Pupils working below the standard of the national curriculum tests

The review of statutory assessment arrangements for pupils working below the standard of national curriculum tests is an independent review chaired by Diane Rochford. The review was established by the Minister for Schools in July 2015 to consider the best way to ensure that pupils who have not completed the relevant key stage programme of study, and are therefore working below the standard of statutory testing arrangements, have the opportunity to demonstrate attainment and progress at primary school.In December 2015 the review group published an interim solution.

In December 2015 the review group published an interim solution. The interim solution follows the same principles as the interim teacher assessment frameworks. It creates additional pre-key stage standards for the frameworks which each contain a number of positive ‘pupil can’ statements. These statements reflect the attainment of pupils who have not yet completed the relevant programme of study but have reached the chronological age that requires a statutory assessment outcome to be reported. The interim pre-key stage standards are to be used by teachers to report a statutory assessment outcome for working below standard of tests, but above the P scales, including SEND and non-SEND pupils.

8.4 Pupils who move schools

Change of school before KS1 test period

If a pupil changes school before 2 May 2016, the receiving school must administer the KS1 tests to the pupil and submit TA data for the pupil.

Change of school during KS1 test period

If a pupil changes school during the KS1 test period (May), the new school must find out which tests have already been administered to the pupil and administer any remaining tests. The 2 schools must reach an agreement with regards to submission of TA for the pupil.

Change of school after the KS1 test period

If a pupil changes school after 31 May 2016, the school where the pupil was registered during the KS1 test period must submit TA data.

8.5 Moderation of the end of KS1 assessments

External moderation is statutory. It gives confidence that schools’ TA judgements for KS1 are accurate and consistent with national standards, as specified in the interim TA frameworks and the national exemplification materials.

Local authorities will carry out moderation visits from 23 May to 30 June 2016. Schools will receive adequate notice of the visit.

STA will monitor and quality assure local authorities’ external moderation processes.

Local authorities

LAs have a statutory duty to moderate a minimum of 25% of schools within their area to validate KS1 TA judgements. They must also moderate any academies that have chosen to be part of their arrangements.

The guidance for LAs on the KS1 TA moderation includes details of the moderation process and how to carry out moderation visits. LAs must refer to the guidance and ensure they are aware of the essential requirements to ensure that robust moderation processes are followed.

Maintained schools

Schools are accountable for submitting accurate and valid KS1 TA judgements. The guidance for schools on the KS1 TA moderation includes details of the moderation process and how visits are carried out. Headteachers must refer to the guidance and ensure they are aware of the essential requirements to ensure that robust moderation processes are followed.

Academies and free schools in England

All references to academies include free schools, as in law they are academies. Academies must comply with the requirements for maintained schools within this ARA.

All academies, as of 1 September 2015, must inform STA of the provider they have an agreement with for moderation of TA. Academies may be charged by their provider for this service. The provider must be given a copy of the academy’s most recent moderation visit record and the outcome.

STA will ask schools to submit details of their KS1 TA moderation arrangements in the spring term 2016.

Independent schools in England

Independent schools may submit their results to the DfE for inclusion in the national summary of results. The school can only claim that its results are comparable with national or local results if it has taken part in the LA moderation process and has been moderated within the first year of participation.

The school must also follow STA guidance and will be subject to the same STA quality assurance and maladministration processes as maintained schools and academies.

Funding for moderation

Each LA receives funding from the DfE in the form of a non-ring-fenced grant through the Education Services Grant. STA does not hold information in relation to how much each LA is funded for their KS1 moderation activities. The LA is responsible for dividing the grant appropriately.

Academies receive direct funding through DfE grants for KS1 statutory moderation.

How local authorities are moderated

The STA will visit a sample of LAs during the moderation period, to moderate their processes and procedures.

If an LA is selected, the STA external moderators will:

  • meet with KS1 moderation manager and appropriate personnel to discuss the approaches to moderation, training and support
  • attend one or more of the LA’s moderation visits
  • report to STA on the LA’s approach to moderation, the robustness of the moderation model used and the accuracy of the validated judgements

8.6 Reporting results of the end of KS1 assessments

Schools, including academies and participating independent schools, must report end of KS1 TA to their LA by Thursday 30 June 2016. Some LAs may ask for the results earlier than the end of term. For all pupils, schools must submit TA judgements in English reading, English writing, mathematics and science.

Headteachers’ responsibilities for TA and moderation

Headteachers are responsible for:

  • ensuring that the required national processes are followed
  • ensuring that their school’s TA judgements are accurate
  • cooperating with any moderation requirements
  • submitting accurate TA data by 30 June 2016

Headteachers must ensure those carrying out TA have enough opportunity to become familiar with the interim teacher assessment frameworks, using funds available within the school’s overall resources.

If there is evidence that a school has not followed the correct administration processes, this may be investigated as maladministration.

8.7 Maladministration

STA has a statutory duty to investigate any matter brought to its attention relating to the accuracy or correctness of a pupil’s TA. Where an LA or other party identifies potential maladministration, this should be reported to STA by calling the national curriculum assessments helpline on 0300 303 3013. STA’s maladministration team will work closely with LAs to investigate any allegations of maladministration.

The maladministration investigation procedures published on GOV.UK explain how STA processes allegations, as well as roles and responsibilities for school visits. This is supported by guidance for LAs carrying out visits on our behalf.

Examples of maladministration include:

  • a concern regarding the TA evidence and processes within the school
  • lack of independent work
  • changes to TA judgements by school staff to influence school assessment outcomes
  • a concern about the pattern of attainment

Once an investigation has finished STA is responsible for deciding whether the school’s TA is accurate. STA may void the school’s TA judgements if the conclusion is reached that there is doubt about the accuracy of pupils’ assessments.