Rabies risks in terrestrial animals by country

Updated 5 January 2023

Applies to England

Risk categorisation

The country or animal risks shown below represent risks as assessed by the UK Health Security Agency for use in post-exposure risk assessments. They incorporate the presence or absence of rabies in domestic and wild animals, surveillance systems in place, and consideration of UK traveller behaviour.

No-risk country

No indigenous rabies in terrestrial animals. Related lyssaviruses in bats.

Low-risk country

Rabies occurs in wild animals but not in companion animals. Related lyssaviruses in bats.

High-risk countries

Rabies occurs in wild and companion animals (or there are no data to prove otherwise). Related lyssaviruses in bats.


Bats may carry rabies-like viruses in countries which are declared rabies-free in terrestrial animals. Therefore, exposure to bats or their secretions should be considered as a potential rabies risk wherever in the world this has occurred.

All countries worldwide are considered high risk for bat exposures, apart from the UK and Ireland which are low risk for bats.

Primates and rodents

The risk of rabies transmission to humans from primates or rodents is considerably lower than the risks associated with exposures from other animals, particularly carnivores.

All countries where rabies is present in terrestrial animals (either low or high-risk ratings) are considered low risk for any exposures from primates and rodents.

Other terrestrial animals

For all other terrestrial animals, use the country listing below.

A to Z of countries



Country Risk level
Afghanistan High risk
Albania High risk
Algeria High risk
American Samoa No risk
Andaman and Nicobar Islands High risk
Andorra No risk
Angola High risk
Anguilla No risk
Antarctica No risk
Antigua and Barbuda No risk
Argentina High risk
Armenia High risk
Aruba No risk
Ascension Island No risk
Australia No risk
Austria No risk
Azerbaijan High risk
Azores No risk


Country Risk level
Bahamas No risk
Bahrain Low risk
Balearic islands No risk
Bali High risk
Bangladesh High risk
Barbados No risk
Belarus High risk
Belgium No risk
Belize High risk
Benin High risk
Bermuda No risk
Bhutan High risk
Bolivia High risk
Borneo High risk
Bosnia and Herzegovina High risk
Botswana High risk
Brazil High risk
British Virgin Islands No risk
Brunei Darussalam Low risk
Bulgaria Low risk but foxes are high risk
Burkina Faso High risk
Burma High risk
Burundi High risk


Country Risk level
Cabrera No risk
Cambodia High risk
Cameroon High risk
Canada Low risk but foxes, skunks and racoons are high risk
Canary Islands No risk
Cape Verde No risk
Cayman Islands No risk
Central African Republic High risk
Ceuta (north African territory of Spain) High risk
Chad High risk
Channel Islands No risk
Chile Low risk
China High risk
Christmas Island No risk
Cocos (Keeling) Islands No risk
Colombia High risk
Comoros High risk
Congo (Republic) High risk
Congo (Democratic Republic of) High risk
Cook Islands No risk
Corsica No risk
Costa Rica High risk
Côte d’Ivoire High risk
Croatia Low risk but foxes are high risk
Cuba High risk
Cyprus No risk
Czech Republic No risk
Czech Republic, within 50km border Poland/Slovakia Low risk but foxes are high risk


Country Risk level
Democratic Republic of the Congo High risk
Denmark No risk
Djibouti High risk
Dominica No risk
Dominican Republic High risk


Country Risk level
East Timor Low risk
Easter Island No risk
Ecuador High risk
Egypt High risk
El Salvador High risk
Equatorial Guinea High risk
Eritrea High risk
Estonia Low risk
Ethiopia High risk


Country Risk level
Faeroe Islands No risk
Falkland Islands No risk
Fiji No risk
Finland No risk
Formentera No risk
France No risk
French Guiana High risk
French Polynesia No risk


Country Risk level
Gabon High risk
Galapagos Islands No risk
Gambia, The High risk
Georgia High risk
Germany No risk
Ghana High risk
Gibraltar No risk
Greece No risk
Greenland High risk
Grenada Low risk
Guadeloupe No risk
Guam No risk
Guatemala High risk
Guinea High risk
Guinea-Bissau High risk
Guyana High risk


Country Risk level
Haiti High risk
Hawaii No risk
Honduras High risk
Hong Kong Low risk
Hungary Low risk but foxes are high risk


Country Risk level
Ibiza No risk
Iceland No risk
India High risk
Indonesia High risk
Iran High risk
Iraq High risk
Ireland No risk
Isle of Man No risk
Israel High risk
Italy No risk


Country Risk level
Jamaica No risk
Jan Mayen and Svalbard (Norway) High risk
Japan No risk
Jordan High risk


Country Risk level
Kazakhstan High risk
Kenya High risk
Kiribati No risk
Korea, North High risk
Korea, South High risk
Kosovo High risk
Kuwait Low risk
Kyrgyzstan High risk


Country Risk level
Laos High risk
La Reunion No risk
Latvia Low risk but foxes are high risk
Lebanon High risk
Lesotho High risk
Liberia High risk
Libya High risk
Liechtenstein No risk
Lithuania High risk
Luxembourg No risk


Country Risk level
Macau SAR High risk
Macedonia High risk
Madagascar High risk
Madeira Islands No risk
Majorca No risk
Malawi High risk
Malaysia High risk
Maldives No risk
Mali High risk
Malta No risk
Margarita Island High risk
Marshall Islands No risk
Martinique No risk
Mauritania High risk
Mauritius No risk
Mayotte No risk
Melilla (north African territory of Spain) High risk
Menorca No risk
Mexico High risk
Micronesia No risk
Moldova High risk
Monaco No risk
Mongolia High risk
Montenegro High risk
Montserrat No risk
Morocco High risk
Mozambique High risk
Myanmar (Burma) High risk


Country Risk level
Namibia High risk
Nauru No risk
Nepal High risk
Netherlands No risk
Netherlands Antilles No risk
New Caledonia No risk
New Zealand No risk
Nicaragua High risk
Niger High risk
Nigeria High risk
Niue No risk
Norfolk Island No risk
Northern Mariana Islands No risk
Norway (mainland only) No risk


Country Risk level
Oman High risk


Country Risk level
Pakistan High risk
Palau No risk
Palestine High risk
Panama High risk
Papua New Guinea No risk
Paraguay High risk
Peru High risk
Philippines High risk
Pitcairn Islands No risk
Poland High risk
Portugal No risk
Puerto Rico High risk


Country Risk level
Qatar Low risk


Country Risk level
Republic of Korea (South Korea) High risk
Reunion No risk
Romania High risk
Russian Federation High risk
Rwanda High risk


Country Risk level
Saint Helena No risk
Saint Kitts and Nevis No risk
Saint Lucia No risk
Saint Martin/Sint Maarten No risk
Saint Pierre and Miquelon No risk
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines No risk
Samoa No risk
San Marino No risk
Sao Tome and Principe Low risk
Saudi Arabia High risk
Senegal High risk
Serbia High risk
Seychelles No risk
Sierra Leone High risk
Singapore No risk
Slovakia Low risk but foxes are high risk
Slovenia Low risk but foxes are high risk
Solomon Islands No risk
Somalia High risk
South Africa High risk
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands No risk
South Sudan High risk
Spain – mainland, Balearic and Canary Islands No risk
Spain – north African territories of Ceuta and Melilla High risk
Sri Lanka High risk
Sudan High risk
Suriname High risk
Svalbard High risk
Swaziland High risk
Sweden No risk
Switzerland No risk
Syria High risk


Country Risk level
Tahiti No risk
Taiwan Low risk
Tajikistan High risk
Tanzania High risk
Thailand High risk
Tibet High risk
Timor-Leste Low risk
Togo High risk
Tokelau No risk
Tonga No risk
Trinidad and Tobago Low risk
Tunisia High risk
Türkiye High risk
Turkmenistan High risk
Turks and Caicos Islands No risk
Tuvalu No risk


Country Risk level
Uganda High risk
Ukraine High risk
United Arab Emirates Low risk
United Kingdom No risk in animals. Low risk in bats
United Kingdom – imported animal Contact RIgS
United States of America Low risk but foxes, skunks and racoons are high risk
Uruguay High risk
Uzbekistan High risk


Country Risk level
Vanuatu No risk
Venezuela High risk
Vietnam High risk
Virgin Islands No risk


Country Risk level
Wake Island and the US Pacific Islands No risk
Wallis and Futuna Islands No risk
Western Sahara High risk


Country Risk level
Yemen High risk


Country Risk level
Zambia High risk
Zanzibar High risk
Zimbabwe High risk