As part of its wider work into heat decarbonisation, BEIS commissioned E4Tech to assess existing literature on the emissions and air pollutants that could be associated with a hydrogen supply chain in a possible future hydrogen-for-heating scenario.
The report focusses on 6 key research questions:
- What are the potential hydrogen leakage rates at the hydrogen production stage via steam methane reformation (SMR) with carbon capture, coal and bio gasification with carbon capture and electrolysis?
- What are the potential wider fugitive emission types and rates from hydrogen production via SMR with carbon capture, coal and bio gasification with carbon capture, and electrolysis?
- What are the potential fugitive hydrogen emission rates post-production (transmission to end-use) with distribution via the gas grid?
- What are the upstream/well-to-tank carbon emissions of using coal as a hydrogen input fuel?
- For each of the questions above, what is the technical and commercial potential for abatement of these emissions?
- Which research papers have explored upstream/well-to-tank non-carbon emissions from using natural gas, coal and biogas as hydrogen input fuels?
The report also identifies gaps in the evidence that may inform future research.