Safety and security

Mozambique border

You should take particular care near the border between Tanzania and the Cabo Delgado province of Mozambique. This is due to the risk of attacks by groups linked to Islamic extremism creating cross-border tensions and instability, including a risk of violence. An attack on Kitaya village in October 2020 was claimed by groups linked to Islamic extremism operating from northern Mozambique.


Although most visits to Tanzania are trouble-free, violent and armed crime exists. The British High Commission continues to receive regular reports of British nationals who are the victims of mugging and bag snatching (especially by passing cars or motorbikes) and armed robbery and burglary have increased throughout the country. In December 2016, a European family was robbed at gun point and their campsite guard killed at South Beach, 20km southeast of Dar es Salaam. In Dar es Salaam, tourists have been kidnapped, assaulted, robbed and forced with the threat of violence to withdraw cash from ATMs and arrange cash transfers of up to £5,000 through Western Union after being befriended by strangers or using unlicensed taxis.

Do not accept lifts from strangers or individuals offering to procure a licensed taxi on your behalf. Do not use unlicensed taxis. Where possible, you should arrange a taxi through a reputable establishment, for example a hotel, and you should always ask to see the driver’s ID. App-based taxi services are not reliable.

Walk as far away from the road as possible and avoid walking and cycling at night. If you need to walk alongside the road, walk towards the traffic. Avoid walking and exercising alone, particularly in isolated areas and on beaches.

Avoid carrying large amounts of cash or other valuables including expensive jewellery or watches. Leave your passport in the hotel safe and carry a photocopy for ID at all times.

If you’re attacked, do not resist. If you carry a bag, it is safer to hold it loosely by the handle or hanging off your shoulder rather than by securing the strap across your chest. Bag thieves have targeted both pedestrians and cyclists.

Take particular care in places frequented by tourists and expatriate residents. In Dar es Salaam, tourists and residents have been targeted in the city centre, at Ubungo bus station, the Masaki/Oysterbay peninsula area, particularly at Coco Beach and along Toure Drive. On Zanzibar incidents have taken place in Stone Town and at hotels and on popular tourist beaches throughout the island.

Make sure residential property is secure and lock all doors and windows, especially at night. Your security guard should insist on official identification before allowing anyone to enter your property or compound. If in doubt, do not let them in and raise the alarm.

You should remain vigilant at all times.

If you need to contact the emergency services, dial 112 and ask for the emergency service you require.

Road Travel

Road Safety

Road conditions are poor and driving standards are extremely poor. Road accidents resulting in death and serious injury are common. Drivers and road users frequently drive dangerously and ignore the rules of the road.

Self-driving in Tanzania can be challenging. Check the speed limits before you drive.

Be vigilant of other road users at all times and drive with caution. Vehicles and motorcycles may try to undertake and overtake in any lane on the roads, including on the hard shoulder of highways. Be wary that drivers of all vehicles often make manoeuvres without signalling beforehand.

Maintain a safe distance between you and the car in front of you and do not approach junctions or roundabouts at speed. You should give way to the right at roundabouts, but be careful as drivers often ignore the rules.

If you’re travelling by car, always wear a seatbelt. If you have concerns about the roadworthiness or safety of any car, then you should not travel in it.

The quality of car hire companies is variable. Consider using reputable taxis as an alternative. There are no roadside rescue or breakdown services. Road maps are hard to come by and not always up to date. Service stations are infrequent and may not have supplies of fuel.

Road surfaces are variable and many roads are in need of repair, including in major towns and cities. During the rainy seasons, roads may become flooded and road surfaces can deteriorate. Take extra care if you’re driving during the rainy season and seek local advice before making a long car journey. You can find more information on the rainy season in the ‘Natural disasters’ section .

Driving conditions in Tanzania’s national parks can be unpredictable as the roads around the parks, mainly dirt tracks, are generally poor and can become hazardous or impassable after heavy rain. A 4x4 vehicle is often required. Avoid driving out of major towns and cities at night.

Keep doors locked, windows up and valuables out of sight, as vehicles are sometimes targeted by thieves. Be particularly careful at night when there is a higher incidence of crime and drunk driving. Avoid driving out of town at night. If you become aware of an unusual incident, or if somebody in plain clothes tries to flag you down, it is often safer not to stop.

There are frequent police road blocks. If you’re stopped by the police, ask to see identification before making any payments for traffic violations. If you’re involved in a road accident, co-operate with the local police.

Local transport

When making short journeys around towns and cities, you should avoid using local public transport. If you can use an officially licensed taxi as an alternative, you should do so.

Local buses (known as ‘dala dalas’), motorbike taxis (‘boda bodas’), and tuk-tuks (known locally as ‘bijajis’) do not meet western safety standards. Vehicles are often in poor condition, badly driven, and rarely have proper insurance cover.

There are frequent accidents involving dala dalas, boda bodas and tuk tuks, some of which result in fatalities.

Pick pockets may operate on overcrowded dala dala buses.

Licences and documents

You will need to have an International Driving Permit (IDP) to drive in Tanzania. From 1 February 2019, you can only get IDPs over the counter from 2,500 UK Post Offices. You will not be able to buy an IDP outside the UK, so get one before you travel.

If you plan to drive yourself during a visit to Tanzania, you’ll need your UK licence and an International Driving Permit. To drive in Zanzibar you’ll need your UK licence and a local Zanzibar driving permit (which you can get through your hire car company). Carry several copies of your driving licence, permits and insurance documents.

Air travel

Domestic air travel and safari journeys are often undertaken in light, mostly propeller driven, aircraft.

The FCDO cannot offer advice on the safety of individual airlines. However, the International Air Transport Association publishes a list of registered airlines that have been audited and found to meet a number of operational safety standards and recommended practices. This list is not exhaustive and the absence of an airline from this list does not necessarily mean that it is unsafe.

The International Civil Aviation Organisation has carried out an audit of the level of implementation of the critical elements of safety oversight in Tanzania.

On 6 November 2022, a Precision Air flight from Dar es Salaam to Bukoba crashed into Lake Victoria close to Bukoba airport.

A list of incidents and accidents in Tanzania is available on the website of the Aviation Safety network

Local travel

If you’re planning to travel to a neighbouring country or across the region, make sure you check our travel advice for each country you intend to visit.

Information about travel in remote areas can be patchy. Invest in an up-to-date travel guide and only use reliable tour companies.

Burundi border/Kigoma region

Take particular care in the area bordering Burundi/Kigoma region. There have been armed robberies in this area, including vehicle hijackings. Drive only in hours of daylight. There are few facilities for visitors.

National Parks

Careful planning is important to get the best out of your safari. If you choose to camp, only use official sites. Make sure you are properly equipped and seek local advice when travelling to isolated areas. Some parks are extremely remote, and emergency access and evacuation can be difficult.

There are risks associated with viewing wildlife, particularly on foot or at close range. Always follow park regulations and wardens’ advice, and make sure you have the correct documentation or permit before entering a national park.


If you are trekking or climbing, only use a reputable travel company, stick to established routes and always walk in groups. Make sure you are well prepared and equipped to cope with the terrain and low temperatures.

Altitude sickness is a risk in Tanzania’s northeast, which is home to Mounts Meru and Kilimanjaro. More information and advice about altitude sickness is available from TravelHealthPro.

River and sea travel

In the last few years there have been several ferry disasters in which hundreds of people have died. These were ferries travelling between Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar, between the islands of Zanzibar and in the Lake Zone area.

Use a reputable ferry company and if you believe a ferry to be overloaded or unseaworthy, do not get on. Familiarise yourself with emergency procedures on board and make a note of where the life jackets and emergency exits are located.

You should also beware of aggressive ticket touts at Tanzanian ports.

The threat of piracy related activity and armed robbery off the coast of Somalia, in the Gulf of Aden and Indian Ocean remains significant. Reports of attacks on local fishing dhows in the area around the Gulf of Aden and Horn of Africa continue. The combined threat assessment of the international Naval Counter Piracy Forces remains that all sailing yachts under their own passage should remain out of the designated High Risk Area or face the risk of being hijacked and held hostage for ransom. For more information and advice, see our Piracy and armed robbery at sea page

Train travel

There have been several accidents on Tanzanian railways. Seek local advice for any long-distance train travel.

Political Situation

General elections took place on 28 October 2020. The elections took place largely peacefully. You should avoid all demonstrations and rallies. On occasion, demonstrations and political rallies across Tanzania have turned violent and resulted in fatalities. Police may use tear gas and/or live ammunition for crowd control. Keep up to date with local and international events and avoid all demonstrations and large gatherings. If you become aware of any nearby protests, leave the area immediately and monitor our travel advice, Twitter and local media for up-to-date information.