2. What you can claim on
You can claim capital allowances on items that you keep to use in your business - these are known as ‘plant and machinery’.
In most cases you can deduct the full cost of these items from your profits before tax using annual investment allowance (AIA).
If you’re a sole trader or partner and have an income of £150,000 or less a year, you may be able to use a simpler system called cash basis instead.
What doesn’t count as plant and machinery
You can’t claim capital allowances on:
- things you lease - you must own them
- buildings, including doors, gates, shutters, mains water and gas systems
- land and structures, eg bridges, roads, docks
- items used only for business entertainment, eg a yacht or karaoke machine
What counts as plant and machinery
Plant and machinery includes:
- items that you keep to use in your business, including cars
- costs of demolishing plant and machinery
- parts of a building considered integral, known as ‘integral features’
- some fixtures, eg fitted kitchens or bathroom suites
- alterations to a building to install other plant and machinery - this doesn’t include repairs
Claim repairs as business expenses if you’re a sole trader or partner - deduct from your profits as a business cost if you’re a limited company.
Integral features are:
- lifts, escalators and moving walkways
- space and water heating systems
- air-conditioning and air cooling systems
- hot and cold water systems (but not toilet and kitchen facilities)
- electrical systems, including lighting systems
- external solar shading
You can claim for fixtures, eg:
- fitted kitchens
- bathroom suites
- fire alarm and CCTV systems
You can claim if you rent or own the building, but only the person who bought the item can claim.
When you buy a building from a previous business owner you can only claim for integral features and fixtures that they claimed for.
If you let residential property
You can only claim for items in residential property if either:
- you run a furnished holiday lettings business
- the item is in the common parts of a residential building, eg a table in the hallway of a block of flats
There are special rules if you run a care business.