Advice and guidance on the health needs of migrant patients from Uruguay for healthcare practitioners.
If the patient is new to the UK:
- explain to them how the NHS works
- discuss how this compares to the healthcare system they’ve been used to
Ensure that all patients are up-to-date with the UK immunisation schedule.
Consider screening for hepatitis B, particularly among those who have recently arrived. Uruguay has an intermediate prevalence.
Ask opportunistically about any travel plans the patient may have to visit friends and relatives in their country of origin, and see National Travel Health Network and Centre (NaTHNaC), or the Health Protection Scotland websites (TRAVAX and fitfortravel), for travel advice.
There is a risk of typhoid infection in Uruguay.
Be alert for possible cases of Chagas disease, and refer as appropriate, because there is a risk of chronic Chagas disease in migrants from Uruguay.
Consider nutritional and metabolic concerns.
There is a low incidence of TB in Uruguay (<40 cases/100,000), so:
- routine screening for TB is not required
- consider testing in patients (including children) who show signs and symptoms
- be aware that TB is a notifiable disease
Sexually transmitted infections and HIV
Take a sexual history, and:
- screen for STIs and HIV according to risk as specified in the UK national standards and guidelines
- test all sexually active patients under the age of 25 for chlamydia
Uruguay has a low rate of HIV (≤1%), so:
- offer and recommend an HIV test if the patient:
- falls into a high risk group
- is newly registering in a high prevalence area
- be advised that national guidelines do not recommend routine consideration of HIV testing of infants and children who have recently arrived in the UK
Uruguay has an intermediate prevalence of hepatitis B, so:
- consider screening for hepatitis B, particularly those who have recently arrived
- offer screening for hepatitis B to all pregnant women during each pregnancy
- immunise appropriately babies born to mothers who are hepatitis B positive, and follow-up accordingly
- be aware that the UK has a universal infant immunisation programme for hepatitis B and a selective immunisation programme for higher risk groups
Uruguay has the same or lower prevalence of hepatitis C than the UK, so ascertain any risk factors for HCV infection that may indicate the need for screening
Travel plans and advice
Ask opportunistically about any travel plans the patient may have to visit friends and relatives in their country of origin, and see National Travel Health Network and Centre (NaTHNaC), or the Health Protection Scotland websites (TRAVAX and fitfortravel, for travel advice.
There is a risk of typhoid infection in Uruguay, so:
- ensure that travellers to Uruguay are offered typhoid immunisation and advice on prevention of enteric fever
- remember enteric fever in the differential diagnosis of illness in patients with a recent history of travel to-or-from Uruguay
There is a risk of chronic Chagas disease in migrants from Uruguay, so:
- be alert for possible cases
- refer as appropriate
Reproductive health indicators
|Reproductive health indicator||UK||Uruguay|
|Number of children per woman¹||2||2|
|Use of contraception²||82%||77%|
|Breast examination or mammography³||75%||54%|
|Cervical cancer screening⁴||70%||62%|
¹lifetime average; ²by woman of reproductive age or partner; ³women aged 50 to 69 years; ⁴women aged 20 to 69 years
Nutritional and metabolic concerns
There is a low risk of anaemia in adults (estimated prevalence is 5 to 20%) and a moderate risk in pre-school children (estimated prevalence is 20 to 40%), so:
- be alert to this possibility in recently arrived migrants, particularly for women and pre-school children
- test as clinically indicated
Consider the possibility of vitamin D deficiency in people who may be at risk due to:
- covering their body for cultural or religious reasons (lack of sunlight)
- skin colour
- diet (vegan or vegetarian)
Health indicators and health care
WHO Global Health Observatory has a summary of health indicators and health care in Uruguay.
Culture, politics and history
The main languages used in Uruguay are:
- Spanish (official)
¹Portuguese-Spanish mix on the Brazilian frontier
Source: The World Factbook
|Atheist or agnostic||17.2|
Source: The World Factbook
Migration to the UK
There were over 1,000 people from Uruguay living in England and Wales at the time of the 2011 Census.
Source: Office for National Statistics