How to protect, advise and support victims of forced marriage, including information and practice guidelines for professionals.
Information for people directly affected by forced marriage is also available.
Recognise a forced marriage
A forced marriage is where one or both people do not (or in cases of people with learning disabilities or reduced capacity, cannot) consent to the marriage as they are pressurised, or abuse is used, to force them to do so. It is recognised in the UK as a form of domestic or child abuse and a serious abuse of human rights.
The pressure put on people to marry against their will may be:
- physical: for example, threats, physical violence or sexual violence
- emotional and psychological: for example, making someone feel like they are bringing ‘shame’ on their family
Financial abuse, for example taking someone’s wages, may also be a factor.
How the Forced Marriage Unit can help
The Forced Marriage Unit remains in operation during coronavirus (COVID-19).
The Forced Marriage Unit (FMU) is a joint Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO) and Home Office unit which leads on the government’s forced marriage policy, outreach and casework. It operates both inside the UK (where support is provided to any individual) and overseas (where consular assistance is provided to British nationals, including dual nationals).
The FMU operates a public helpline to provide advice and support to:
- victims and potential victims of forced marriage
- professionals dealing with cases
The FMU public helpline can help with:
- safety advice
- providing assistance when an unwanted spouse is due to move to the UK (‘reluctant sponsor’ cases)
- where possible, assistance in repatriation of victims held against their will overseas
The FMU undertakes an extensive training and awareness programme targeting both professionals and potential victims, and carries out a range of work to raise awareness.
The FMU privacy notice describes how we process data to provide support to victims and potential victims of forced marriage. The notice explains how we will use your personal data, and what your rights are in relation to our use of your personal data.
- telephone: +44 (0) 20 7008 0151
- email, including for outreach work: email@example.com
- Facebook: Forced Marriage page
- Twitter: @FMUnit
- media enquiries:
- The Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office +44 (0) 20 7008 3100
- Home Office +44 (0) 300 123 3535
The FMU has also produced:
- Forced Marriage: A Survivor’s Handbook
- What is a forced marriage? leaflet
- - this is a business-card sized design which contains contact details for the FMU. They can be given to any potential victim and are small enough to be placed in wallets/purses
Understand the legislation on forced marriage
The Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014 made it a criminal offence in England, Wales and Scotland to force someone to marry. (It is a criminal offence in Northern Ireland under separate legislation).
- taking someone overseas to force them to marry (whether or not the forced marriage takes place)
- marrying someone who lacks the mental capacity to consent to the marriage (whether they are pressured to or not)
Forcing someone to marry can result in a sentence of up to 7 years in prison.
It is also possible for victims or those at risk to apply for a Forced Marriage Protection Order (FMPO). As a civil law measure, an application for a FMPO would be made in the family court. Read guidance from the Ministry of Justice on taking out an FMPO
Failure to comply with the requirements or terms set out in a FMPO granted by the Family Court, is a criminal offence and can result in a sentence of up to 5 years in prison.
In 2017 the government introduced lifelong anonymity for victims of forced marriage to encourage more victims of this hidden crime to come forward.
Access guidance and training
The government is committed to ensuring that professionals who are made aware of a forced marriage victim have the training and guidance they need to provide effective advice and support. This includes police officers, social workers, teachers, and safeguarding professionals.
The Forced Marriage Unit has created a guidance document which comprises:
- multi-agency statutory guidance for dealing with forced marriage, which provides guidance for every person and organisation that has a public function relating to safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children and vulnerable adults; and
- multi-agency (non-statutory) practice guidelines on handling cases of forced marriage, for frontline workers, including health professionals, educational staff, police, children’s social care, adult social services, local authority housing staff, registrars, and staff working at the UK border.”
You can also read:
- multi-agency practice guidelines for Forced Marriage and learning disabilities (PDF, 586 KB), which provides guidance and advise to frontline workers supporting children and adults with learning disabilities.
- guidance for members of Parliament and constituency offices (PDF, 302 KB) – available for all MPs to support them in assisting their constituents, this guidance provides background information on forced marriage and describes best practice for supporting victims and dealing with their families
The FMU has also developed free forced marriage e-learning for professionals. The modules aim to enable professionals to recognise the warning signs and ensure that appropriate action is taken to help protect and support all those at risk.
Please email firstname.lastname@example.org if you have problems registering.
The FMU runs an ongoing outreach programme across the UK, to raise awareness of forced marriage and delivers training to statutory agencies and voluntary and community organisations (including local authority safeguarding teams, police forces, and the judiciary).
Statistics on forced marriage
You can view a collection of Forced Marriage Unit statistics including the most recent yearly release.
Other statistical information on forced marriage
The Ministry of Justice produces, as part of their family justice quarterly statistics series, data on the number of applications made for a Forced Marriage Protection Order and the number of orders granted by the court.
The Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) produces, as part of their Violence against Women and Girls crime report (PDF, 2.8 MB), data on the number of forced marriage referrals from the police to the CPS, defendants charged and prosecutions.
‘Right to choose’ campaign
The Forced Marriage Unit (FMU) developed this short film aimed at deterring potential forced marriage perpetrators. The film highlights the devastating impact forced marriage can have on victims and their families, and signposts victims and highlights where victims can turn to sources of further support.
Right to choose: consequences of forced marriage
Right to choose campaign audio
The FMU has also produced an abridged audio version of the Right to choose: consequences of forced marriage video. The FMU also commissioned the audio in 5 additional languages: Arabic, Bengali, Punjabi, Somali and Urdu.
The FMU also commissioned 3 short videos to highlight the increased reports of forced marriage during the summer holidays. These videos show how to spot the signs of forced marriage and focus on 3 young people all affected by these issues.
Right to choose: spotting the signs of forced marriage (Nayana)
This film contains scenes which some viewers may find distressing.
Right to choose: spotting the signs of forced marriage (Jess)
Right to choose: spotting the signs of forced marriage (Azim)
The British high commission in Islamabad commissioned short animated documentaries on the issue of forced marriage in Pakistan.
We welcome your views on the support we provide, to help us to identify what we do well and what we could do better. Contact us using our feedback contact form.
Alternatively write to us:
Consular Feedback Team
Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office
King Charles Street
London SW1A 2AH
Or telephone +44 (0)20 7008 5000
Read the disclaimer relating to this guidance.