2016 Key stage 2: assessment and reporting arrangements (ARA)

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Section 9: Teacher assessment

Includes what teachers must assess, details of the interim frameworks, pupils working below the standard of the national curriculum, moderation and reporting

9 Teacher assessment

Teacher assessment (TA) is the main focus for end of KS2 English writing assessment and reporting. Schools are also required to report TA for English reading, mathematics and science. It is carried out as part of teaching and learning.

TA provides a judgement that is based on knowledge of how the pupil has performed over time and in a variety of contexts.

In 2016, teacher assessments must be reported using the standards set out in the interim teacher assessment frameworks.

9.1 Key dates

Monday 16 May 2016 Teacher assessment section of NCA tools opens.
Thursday 30 June 2016 Teacher assessment data must be submitted via the ‘Teacher assessment’ section of the NCA tools website.

Headteachers must submit their KS2 TA outcomes by Thursday 30 June 2016. Schools will be informed if they are going to get a moderation visit on or after 20 May 2016. LAs will carry out the visits from 23 May to 30 June 2016.

9.2 What teachers must assess

At the end of KS2, teachers must summarise their judgements for each eligible pupil, taking into account the pupil’s progress and performance throughout the key stage. They must base their TA judgement on a broad range of evidence from across the curriculum for each pupil and use their knowledge of a pupil’s work over time, taking into account the pupil’s:

  • written, practical and oral
  • homework

Teachers may not be able to provide a full TA judgement for some pupils, eg because of lengthy periods of absence. They should still report a TA code when they submit their TA data.

9.3 Interim teacher assessment frameworks

Following the removal of teacher assessment levels, the interim teacher assessment frameworks are to support teachers in making robust and accurate judgements for pupils at the end of KS2 in 2016.

The interim teacher assessment frameworks are for 2015 to 2016 only. The DfE is evaluating options for future years.

The interim frameworks set out the standard(s) a child will be assessed against at the end of the key stage for reading, writing, mathematics and science. Teachers must refer to the frameworks to fulfil their statutory duty to report at the end of the key stage.

The frameworks contain a number of ‘pupil can’ statements such as, ‘the pupil can write for a range of purposes and audiences (including writing a short story) creating atmosphere, and integrating dialogue to convey character and advance the action’. The evidence must show that the pupil demonstrates attainment of all the ‘pupil can’ statements within the standard they have been awarded. Teachers must be confident the pupil meets the ‘pupil can’ statements in the preceding standards but there is no requirement to produce specific evidence for all of them. It is likely that the pupil’s work for the standard they have been awarded will also evidence the ‘pupil can’ statements of the preceding standard(s).

Interim framework for KS2 English writing

For KS2 English writing, teacher assessment is the primary outcome used for accountability. Teachers must refer to the interim framework when making their teacher assessment judgement. The framework contains 3 standards:

  • working towards the expected standard
  • working at the expected standard
  • working at greater depth within the expected standard

Pupils will be grouped into 4 categories for accountability; the 3 categories above plus an additional category for those pupils that do not meet the ‘working towards’ standard.

Interim frameworks for KS2 English reading, mathematics and science

For KS2 English reading, mathematics and science, where TA is not used for formal accountability, the framework contains one standard: working at the expected standard. Pupils will be grouped into 2 categories; the ‘working at the expected standard’ category plus an additional category for those pupils that do not meet that standard.

9.4 Pupils working below the standard of the national curriculum

The review of statutory assessment arrangements for pupils working below the standard of national curriculum tests is an independent review chaired by Diane Rochford. The review was established by the Minister for Schools in July 2015 to consider the best way to ensure that pupils who have not completed the relevant key stage programme of study, and are therefore working below the standard of statutory testing arrangements, have the opportunity to demonstrate attainment and progress at primary school.

In December 2015 the review group published an interim solution which follows the same principles as the interim teacher assessment frameworks. It creates additional pre-key stage standards for the frameworks which each contain a number of positive ‘pupil can’ statements. These statements reflect the attainment of pupils who have not yet completed the relevant programme of study but have reached the chronological age that requires a statutory assessment outcome to be reported.

The interim pre-key stage standards are to be used by teachers to report a statutory assessment outcome for working below standard of tests, but above the P scales, including SEND and non-SEND pupils.

9.5 Pupils who move schools

Change of school before KS2 test week

If a pupil changes school before test week, the receiving school must submit TA data for the pupil.

Change of school during the KS2 test week

If a pupil changes school during the KS2 test week, the school where the pupil was registered at the beginning of the test week must submit TA data for the pupil.

Change of school after the KS2 test week

If a pupil changes school after the KS2 test week, the school where the pupil was registered during the KS2 test week must submit TA data for the pupil.

9.6 Moderation of teacher assessment

External moderation is statutory. It gives confidence that schools’ TA judgements are accurate and consistent with national standards, as specified in the interim TA frameworks and the national exemplification materials.

Local authorities will carry out moderation visits from 23 May to 30 June 2016. Schools will receive adequate notice of the visit.

STA will monitor and quality assure LAs’ external moderation processes.

Local authorities

Local authorities (LAs) have a statutory duty to moderate a minimum of 25% of schools within their area to validate KS2 English writing TA judgements. They must also moderate any academies that have chosen to be part of their arrangements.

The guidance for LAs on the moderation of KS2 English writing TA includes details of the moderation process and how to carry out moderation visits. Local authorities must refer to the guidance and ensure they are aware of the essential requirements to ensure that robust moderation processes are followed.

Maintained schools

Schools are accountable for submitting accurate and valid KS2 TA judgements. The guidance for schools on the moderation of KS2 English writing TA includes details of the moderation process and how visits are carried out. Headteachers must refer to the guidance and ensure they are aware of the essential requirements to ensure that robust moderation processes are followed.

Academies and free schools in England

All references to academies include free schools, as in law they are academies. Academies must comply with the requirements for maintained schools within this ARA.

All academies, as of 1 September 2015, must inform STA of the provider they have an agreement with for moderation of KS2 English writing TA. Academies may be charged by their provider for this service. The provider must be given a copy of the academy’s most recent moderation visit record and the outcome. STA will ask schools to submit details of their KS2 English writing TA moderation arrangements in the spring term 2016.

Independent schools in England

Independent schools may submit their results to the DfE for inclusion in the national summary of results. The school can only claim that its results are comparable with national or local results if it has taken part in the LA moderation process and has been moderated within the first year of participation. The school must also follow STA guidance and will be subject to the same STA quality assurance and maladministration processes as maintained schools and academies.

Funding for moderation

Each LA receives direct funding from the DfE. Academies receive direct funding through DfE grants for KS2 statutory moderation.

How local authorities are moderated

The STA will visit a sample of LAs during the moderation period, to moderate their processes and procedures.

If a LA is selected, the STA external moderators will:

  • meet with KS2 English writing moderation manager and appropriate personnel to discuss the approaches to moderation, training and support
  • attend one or more of the LA’s moderation visits
  • report to STA on the LA’s approach to moderation, the robustness of the moderation model used and the accuracy of the validated judgements

9.7 Submitting KS2 data

TA data is submitted to STA via the ‘Teacher assessment’ section of the NCA tools website and can be accessed from 16 May 2016. The deadline for submissions is Thursday 30 June. Schools should refer to the guidance on submitting data for instructions and codes.

TA for KS2 English writing is subject to statutory external moderation.

The DfE uses TA data in performance tables, RAISEonline and floor standards. Data submitted late will not be used in the performance tables data checking exercise, or the RAISEonline release of unvalidated data.

Maintained schools, including special schools

Schools must submit TA judgements in English reading, English writing, mathematics and science. Schools must do this by either submitting their data:

  • using NCA tools
  • via their LA, where the LA has agreed to submit on their behalf

School’s submission must include TA data for every pupil:

  • that the school registered to sit a national curriculum test
  • registered as working below the standard of the tests

Academies

Academies must comply with the KS2 assessment arrangements in relation to reporting which are set out in their funding agreement.

Independent schools and non-maintained special schools

Independent schools participating in the assessment and reporting arrangements must submit TA judgements for the subjects they have registered pupils for.

Pupils discounted from KS2 teacher assessment

Schools can apply for pupils who have recently arrived from overseas to be discounted from performance tables calculations. To be discounted, a pupil must meet all 3 of the following criteria:

  • they were admitted to an English school for the first time during the 2014 to 2015 or 2015 to 2016 school year
  • they arrived from overseas before their admission
  • English is not an official language of the country they came from

The performance tables data checking exercise takes place each year and DfE will write to each school to advise them when it will be run. If schools have queries about this or the performance tables they should contact the DfE’s national enquiry line on 0370 000 2288.

9.8 Reporting results at the end of KS2 assessments

Schools, including academies and participating independent schools, must report end of KS2 TA either via NCA tools or to their LA by Thursday 30 June 2016. For all pupils, schools must submit TA judgements in English reading, English writing, mathematics and science.

Headteachers’ responsibilities for TA and moderation

Headteachers are responsible for:

  • ensuring that the required national processes are followed
  • ensuring that their school’s TA judgements are accurate
  • cooperating with any moderation requirements
  • submitting accurate TA data

Headteachers must ensure those carrying out TA have enough opportunity to become familiar with national assessment standards, using funds available within the school’s overall resources.

If there is evidence that a school has not followed national processes, this may be investigated as maladministration.

9.9 Maladministration

STA has a statutory duty to investigate any matter brought to its attention relating to the accuracy or correctness of a pupil’s TA. Where a LA or other party identifies potential maladministration, this should be reported to STA by calling the national curriculum assessments helpline on 0300 303 3013. The STA maladministration team will work closely with LAs to investigate any allegations of maladministration.

The maladministration investigation procedures explain how STA processes allegations, as well as roles and responsibilities for school visits. This is supported by guidance for LAs carrying out visits on STA’s behalf.

Examples of KS2 maladministration include:

  • a concern regarding the TA evidence and processes within the school
  • lack of independent work
  • changes to TA judgements by school staff to influence school assessment outcomes
  • a concern about the pattern of attainment

Once an investigation has finished STA is responsible for deciding whether the school’s TA is accurate. STA may void the school’s TA judgements if it is concluded that there is doubt about the accuracy of pupils’ assessments