Policy paper

Report Mapping China’s Climate and Energy Policies

It serves as a reliable guide to understand China's climate, energy and environmental policy making process and is widely read by the community working on the issue.



The fourth edition of the report “Mapping China’s Climate and Energy Policies” describes, maps and analyzes China’s national-level Party, government agencies, academic and research institutions, and state-affiliated enterprise climate actors in China on a policy by policy basis.

The report is supported by the British Embassy in Beijing, the Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany in Beijing, and the Embassy of Switzerland in China.

The report comprises twelve chapters organized in three sections: stakeholders and policy formation process, policies, and future strategy.

In Part I: Stakeholders and Policy Formation Process

Chapter 1 provides an overview of China’s central government, setting out the main stakeholders engaged in climate policy formation at the national level. These include government and non-governmental actors such as industry and expert organizations.

Chapter 2 summarizes key Party organizations and leadership task forces engaged in climate, energy and environmental policy. It explains how the Party leads government policy formation processes.

Chapter 3 analyzes the Ministry of Ecology and Environment (MEE) and National Development and Reform Commission of the People’s Republic of China (NDRC) and institutions specializing in climate and energy policies associated with the State Council.

Chapter 4 focuses on expert organizations.

Chapter 5 on industry stakeholders.

Chapter 6 draws on sociological theory to present “clusters” of stakeholders that influence specific climate and energy issues, varying according to political, administrative, economic, and technical bases of authority.

In Part II: Policies

Chapter 7 explains aspects of China’s political economy essential for understanding its environmental and energy policies. This chapter covers the co-existence of the centrally planned and market economy, the pervasiveness of subsidies, decentralized tax administration, and related land development and finance policies.

Chapters 8 and 9 present China’s climate and energy policies that are critical to its ability to meet its Paris Agreement contributions.

Chapter 8 also examines how China’s efforts to control greenhouse gas emissions must synergize with solving air, water and land pollution.

Chapter 10 summarizes China’s positions at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and other international fora, and how China’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) under the Paris Agreement was developed in relation to its domestic five-year planning process.

In Part III: Future Strategy

Chapter 11 examines the imperative for China to take immediate action on climate and how China’s efforts to advance climate policies have emerged as a foreign policy strategy.

Chapter 12 concludes by considering the future of China’s climate policy formation process and how it might influence China’s broader reform agenda, its foreign relations, energy policy, and the critical step of local implementation of its NDC to achieve its pledges to the international community.

Published 13 March 2019