Research and analysis

How bollards affect crowd movement

Explores the impact of bollard arrays on pedestrian flow through a series of trials simulating evacuations conditions.

Documents

Impact of hostile vehicle mitigation measures (bollards) on pedestrian crowd movement: phase 1

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Impact of hostile vehicle mitigation measures (bollards) on pedestrian crowd movement: phase 2

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Details

Commissioned research reports to explore the impact of bollard arrays upon pedestrian flows, though a series of trials of simulated evacuation conditions.

The research was completed in 2 parts. Phase:

  • 1 investigated:
    • population density
    • bollard array positioning at large stand-off distances
    • single bollard placement in the centre of the exit
    • the presence of a cross-flow
  • 2 investigated:
    • exit width
    • bollard array positioning at short stand-office distances
    • luggage presence

This research influenced the creation of ‘Influence of bollards on pedestrian evacuation flow (TAL 01/16)’.

Research was completed by the Fire Safety Engineering Group of the University of Greenwich. The reports were commissioned by the Department for Transport and Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure.

Published 15 November 2016