Research and analysis

How bollards affect crowd movement

Explores the impact of bollard arrays on pedestrian flow through a series of trials that simulated evacuation conditions.

Documents

Impact of hostile vehicle mitigation measures (bollards) on pedestrian crowd movement: phase 1

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Impact of hostile vehicle mitigation measures (bollards) on pedestrian crowd movement: phase 2

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Details

Final reports, set out in 2 phases, which explore how bollards impact pedestrian flows through a series of trials simulating evacuation conditions.

Phase 1 investigated:

  • population density
  • bollard array positioning at large stand-off distances
  • single bollard placement in the centre of the exit
  • the presence of a cross-flow

Phase 2 investigated:

  • exit width
  • bollard array positioning at short stand-office distances
  • luggage presence

This research helped to create influence of bollards on pedestrian evacuation flow (TAL 01/16).

Research was completed by the Fire Safety Engineering Group of the University of Greenwich. The reports were commissioned by the Department for Transport and Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure.

Published 15 November 2016