Final reports, set out in 2 phases, which explore how bollards impact pedestrian flows through a series of trials simulating evacuation conditions.
Phase 1 investigated:
- population density
- bollard array positioning at large stand-off distances
- single bollard placement in the centre of the exit
- the presence of a cross-flow
Phase 2 investigated:
- exit width
- bollard array positioning at short stand-office distances
- luggage presence
This research helped to create influence of bollards on pedestrian evacuation flow (TAL 01/16).
Research was completed by the Fire Safety Engineering Group of the University of Greenwich. The reports were commissioned by the Department for Transport and Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure.