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This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/conflict-stability-and-security-fund-cssf/conflict-stability-and-security-fund-an-overview
The Conflict, Stability and Security Fund (CSSF) provides development and security support to countries which are at risk of conflict or instability. It’s the only government fund which uses both Official Development Assistance (ODA) spend and non-ODA spend to deliver and support security, defence, peacekeeping, peace-building and stability activity.
The UK’s security and wider international interests are directly impacted where other countries are at risk of conflict or instability. The CSSF supports work to reduce that risk in these countries where the UK has key interests. Through the CSSF, the UK and our international partners are more secure from threats such as terrorism, corruption and illegal migration or trafficking.
The CSSF’s strategic direction is set by the National Security Council (NSC) which includes secretaries of state and is chaired by the Prime Minister. It is guided by the priorities set out in the 2015 Strategic Defence and Security Review and the UK aid Strategy. Its objective is to put this strategic direction into action on the ground. It does this by flexibly and rapidly drawing on the most effective combination of defence, diplomacy, and development assistance at the government’s disposal.
Where the CSSF delivers
The National Security Council (NSC) agrees the countries, regions and themes the CSSF focuses on and the strategies for UK engagement with them. The CSSF delivers against more than 40 of these strategies, covering over 70 countries.
Turning decisions into programmes
The NSC tasks cross-government Regional Boards to decide how UK government strategies can be delivered on the ground through a range of activities, including programmes. The CSSF programmes, and projects within them, are developed based on analysis of the contexts we’re working in, on what other donors or parts of the government are doing, are doing and where the CSSF can add value.
The Regional Boards are chaired by Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) Directors with representatives from NSC Departments. Individual Departments will take responsibility for programmes or parts of programmes and Heads of Mission will oversee country programmes. Between them, these Boards and Departments take decisions about designing and delivering programmes, including adapting to inevitable changes.
UK missions overseas then are responsible for implementing these programmes. They do this directly or by using partners ranging from multilateral agencies, to national and international NGOs to commercial organisations. The decision on who we work with is guided by factors including value for money and who can most effectively deliver our objectives.
Where we work
The CSSF is in over 70 countries including: Afghanistan, Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Burma, Burundi, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Georgia , Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, Macedonia, Mali, Morocco, Moldova, Nepal, Nigeria, Occupied Palestinian Territories, Pakistan , Peru, Serbia, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, Uzbekistan, Ukraine and Yemen. The CSSF also works in the UK Overseas Territories.
We cannot list every single country we work in for operational security reasons.
What we deliver
CSSF programmes deliver a range of support including:
building sustainable peace/conflict transformation – for example, in Colombia we are supporting the government to prepare and implement post-peace agreement plans
crisis and stability – for example, in Georgia, the CSSF supported the establishment of a National Crisis Centre that has been used in response to events such as the April 2016 clashes in Nagorno-Karabakh
protecting UK interests and nationals (serious organised crime, counter-terrorism, migration and modern slavery) – for example, CSSF funded justice advisers played a key role in the seizure of the Tanzanian registered ship MV Hamal off the coast of Scotland, resulting in the largest cocaine seizure in UK history
strengthening global security/effective and accountable security actors – in Afghanistan, for example, the CSSF is helping develop Afghan state capability to provide security and rule of law, counter violent extremism and organised crime
women, peace and security – for example, in the Democratic Republic of Congo the CSSF supported the investigation and prosecution of combatants for war crimes, including sexual violence
defence engagement – in Nigeria, for example, the CSSF has been supporting the Nigerian Army in how to deal with improvised explosive devices left by Boko Haram
Find out more about what we deliver in our annual report.
How we deliver
All our programmes also consider cross cutting issues including human rights. Overseas Security and Justice Assessments (OSJAs) are completed for all activities engaging with security and justice sectors to assess human rights risks and identify any mitigating actions. There have been cases across the CSSF where work has not been allowed to proceed or been redesigned when we have assessed risks as too high.
The CSSF has also made conflict sensitivity and gender analysis mandatory to underpin CSSF programming. This ensures a higher level of awareness of threats and opportunities in the fragile contexts in which the CSSF operates.
Many of our programmes are delivered across several departments. Some are also multi-country. We champion integrated delivery across government departments with support from the UK Stabilisation Unit. It supports integrated co-ordination of UK government activities in fragile and conflict-affected states by acting as a centre of expertise on conflict, stabilisation, security and justice.
Where companies and not-for-profit organisations are contracted to deliver activities commercially they are often engaged via the CSSF Procurement Framework. The Framework is formed of 3 lots: Governance, Security & Justice (Lot A); Conflict Prevention, and Peacebuilding (Lot 2); and Defence Support Services (Lot 3).
You can find details of our programmes in:
- our 2017 to 2018 annual report (including case studies)
- programme summaries
- annual review summaries (2016 to 2017)
We do not publish all the details of all our programmes. CSSF programmes are often working on sensitive issues and in situations with high security risks. We will not publish information that might put our staff or the staff of our implementing partners in danger. Our Regional Boards (chaired by FCO Directors) consider whether any information is too sensitive to publish. They base their decisions on what can be published by applying similar criteria to set out in Freedom of Information legislation. Information may be published at a later date if it becomes less sensitive.
The CSSF has been allocated £1.28 billion for financial year 2018 to 2019. It includes over £300 million mandatory contributions to peacekeeping operations. It is split between Official Development Assistance (ODA) that counts towards the UK aid target of 0.7% of GNI, and funding that is not ODA eligible.
The NSC reviews the CSSF as a whole every autumn and agrees its focus and overall allocations for each year. The CSSF is also considered when the NSC discusses individual countries or themes.
The Deputy National Security Adviser is the Senior Responsible Officer (SRO) for the CSSF as a whole. They ensures that government departments are delivering against the direction given to them by the NSC.
Each department is then accountable for its CSSF spending. The Permanent Secretary of each department is the SRO for this spend and reporting by departments.
The National Security Secretariat Joint Funds Unit is accountable to the NSC for managing the CSSF and advising the NSC on CSSF delivery across the NSC strategies. The hub provides guidance to Regional Boards and sets minimum standards, including on programme and financial management and monitoring and evaluation, drawing on skills from across the NSC departments.
Parliament scrutinises the CSSF through the Joint Committee on the National Security Strategy (JCNSS). Parliamentary select committees will also carry out scrutiny of their departments in the usual way.
- CSSF annual report for financial year 2017 to 2018
- CSSF annual report for financial year 2016 to 2017
- 2017 written ministerial statement on CSSF
- Government response to the Independent Commission for Aid Impact (ICAI) report into CSSF
- CSSF programme summaries
- CSSF Procurement Framework – listing commercial and NGO implementing partners
- Stabilisation Unit
Find out more on Twitter: #UKCSSF
Contact us: NSSJointProgrammeHub@fco.gsi.gov.uk