Pneumococcal disease is caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus).
Infections are either non-invasive or invasive. Non-invasive diseases include middle ear infections (otitis media), sinusitis and bronchitis. Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) includes septicaemia, pneumonia and meningitis.
IPD is a major cause of disease and death globally and in the UK. It particularly affects:
the very young
people with no spleen or a non-functioning spleen
people with other causes of impaired immunity and certain chronic medical conditions
There are more than 90 different pneumococcal types (serotypes) that can cause disease in humans. More than 5,000 cases of IPD are diagnosed each year in England. The number of cases peaks in December and January.
Two different pneumococcal vaccines are routinely used in the national immunisation programme. These are the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23). Current recommendations for both vaccines can be found in the Green Book.
The UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA) undertakes enhanced surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease. All isolates administered should be referred to the reference laboratory.
UKHSA routinely requires GPs and paediatricians to complete a surveillance questionnaire for all laboratory-confirmed invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) to monitor the impact of the PCV13 (Prevenar 13®).