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Ofqual's reliability research

Research to investigate the reliability and validity of results in national tests, public examinations and other qualifications in England.

Reliability is a measure of the consistency of the results of qualifications and assessments. A reliable qualification would mean that a student would receive the same result if they took a different version of the exam, took the test on a different day, or if a different examiner had marked the paper.

See also Ofqual’s ‘Reliability of Assessment Compendium’ that pulls our comprehensive research into one list of documents.


  1. The internal reliability of some City and Guilds tests

    • Research and analysis
  2. Estimation of internal reliability: Pritchard and Hayes

    • Research and analysis
  3. Reliability of vocational assessment: level 3 tech qualifications

    • Research and analysis
  4. Estimation of inter-rater reliability

    • Research and analysis
  5. Marker effects and examination reliability

    • Research and analysis