Immigration Rules

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Immigration Rules part 13: deportation

Deportation (paragraphs A362 to 400).

A deportation order

  1. A362. Where Article 8 is raised in the context of deportation under Part 13 of these Rules, the claim under Article 8 will only succeed where the requirements of these rules as at 28 July 2014 are met, regardless of when the notice of intention to deport or the deportation order, as appropriate, was served.

  2. 362. A deportation order requires the subject to leave the United Kingdom and authorises his detention until he is removed. It also prohibits him from re-entering the country for as long as it is in force and invalidates any leave to enter or remain in the United Kingdom given him before the Order is made or while it is in force.

  3. 363. The circumstances in which a person is liable to deportation include:

    1. (i) where the Secretary of State deems the person’s deportation to be conducive to the public good;
    2. (ii) where the person is the spouse or civil partner or child under 18 of a person ordered to be deported; and
    3. (iii) where a court recommends deportation in the case of a person over the age of 17 who has been convicted of an offence punishable with imprisonment.
  4. 363A. Prior to 2 October 2000, a person would have been liable to deportation in certain circumstances in which he is now liable to administrative removal. However, such a person remains liable to deportation, rather than administrative removal where:

    1. (i) a decision to make a deportation order against him was taken before 2 October 2000; or
    2. (ii) the person has made a valid application under the Immigration (Regularisation Period for Overstayers) Regulations 2000.

Deportation of family members

  1. 364. DELETED

  2. 364A. DELETED

  3. 365. Section 5 of the Immigration Act 1971 gives the Secretary of State power in certain circumstances to make a deportation order against the spouse, civil partner or child of a person against whom a deportation order has been made. The Secretary of State will not normally decide to deport the spouse or civil partner of a deportee under section 5 of the Immigration Act 1971 where:

    1. (i) he has qualified for settlement in his own right; or
    2. (ii) he has been living apart from the deportee.
  4. 366. The Secretary of State will not normally decide to deport the child of a deportee “under section 5 of the Immigration Act 1971 where:

    1. (i) he and his mother or father are living apart from the deportee; or
    2. (ii) he has left home and established himself on an independent basis; or
    3. (iii) he married or formed a civil partnership before deportation came into prospect.
  5. 367.DELETED

  6. 368. DELETED

Right of appeal against destination

  1. 369. DELETED

Restricted right of appeal against deportation in cases of breach of limited leave

  1. 370. DELETED

Exemption to the restricted right of appeal

  1. 371. DELETED
  2. 372. DELETED

A deportation order made on the recommendation of a Court

  1. 373. DELETED

Where deportation is deemed to be conducive to the public good

  1. 374. DELETED

  2. 375. DELETED

Hearing of appeals

  1. 376. DELETED

  2. 377. DELETED

  3. 378. DELETED

Persons who have claimed asylum

  1. 379. DELETED

  2. 379A. DELETED

  3. 380. DELETED

Procedure

  1. 381. When a decision to make a deportation order has been taken (otherwise than on the recommendation of a court) a notice will be given to the person concerned informing him of the decision.

  2. 382. Following the issue of such a notice the Secretary of State may authorise detention or make an order restricting a person as to residence, employment or occupation and requiring him to report to the police, pending the making of a deportation order.

  3. 383. DELETED

  4. 384. DELETED

Arrangements for removal

  1. 385. A person against whom a deportation order has been made will normally be removed from the United Kingdom. The power is to be exercised so as to secure the person’s return to the country of which he is a national, or which has most recently provided him with a travel document, unless he can show that another country will receive him. In considering any departure from the normal arrangements, regard will be had to the public interest generally, and to any additional expense that may fall on public funds.

  2. 386. DELETED

Supervised departure

  1. 387. DELETED

Returned deportees

  1. 388. Where a person returns to the UK when a deportation order is in force against him, he may be deported under the original order. The Secretary of State will consider every such case in the light of all the relevant circumstances before deciding whether to enforce the order.

Returned family members

  1. 389. Persons deported in the circumstances set out in paragraphs 365-368 above (deportation of family members) may be able to seek re-admission to the United Kingdom under the Immigration Rules where:

    1. (i) a child reaches 18 (when he ceases to be subject to the deportation order); or
    2. (ii) in the case of a spouse or civil partner, the marriage or civil partnership comes to an end.

Revocation of deportation order

  1. 390. An application for revocation of a deportation order will be considered in the light of all the circumstances including the following:

    1. (i) the grounds on which the order was made;
    2. (ii) any representations made in support of revocation;
    3. (iii) the interests of the community, including the maintenance of an effective immigration control;
    4. (iv) the interests of the applicant, including any compassionate circumstances.
  2. 390A. Where paragraph 398 applies the Secretary of State will consider whether paragraph 399 or 399A applies and, if it does not, it will only be in exceptional circumstances that the public interest in maintaining the deportation order will be outweighed by other factors.

  3. 391. In the case of a person who has been deported following conviction for a criminal offence, the continuation of a deportation order against that person will be the proper course:

    1. (a) in the case of a conviction for an offence for which the person was sentenced to a period of imprisonment of less than 4 years, unless 10 years have elapsed since the making of the deportation order when, if an application for revocation is received, consideration will be given on a case by case basis to whether the deportation order should be maintained, or

    2. (b) in the case of a conviction for an offence for which the person was sentenced to a period of imprisonment of at least 4 years, at any time,

Unless, in either case, the continuation would be contrary to the Human Rights Convention or the Convention and Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, or there are other exceptional circumstances that mean the continuation is outweighed by compelling factors.

  1. 391A. In other cases, revocation of the order will not normally be authorised unless the situation has been materially altered, either by a change of circumstances since the order was made, or by fresh information coming to light which was not before the appellate authorities or the Secretary of State. The passage of time since the person was deported may also in itself amount to such a change of circumstances as to warrant revocation of the order.

  2. 392. Revocation of a deportation order does not entitle the person concerned to re-enter the United Kingdom; it renders him eligible to apply for admission under the Immigration Rules. Application for revocation of the order may be made to the Entry Clearance Officer or direct to the Home Office.

Rights of appeal in relation to a decision not to revoke a deportation order

  1. 393. DELETED

  2. 394. DELETED

  3. 395. DELETED

  4. 396. Where a person is liable to deportation the presumption shall be that the public interest requires deportation. It is in the public interest to deport where the Secretary of State must make a deportation order in accordance with section 32 of the UK Borders Act 2007.

  5. 397. A deportation order will not be made if the person’s removal pursuant to the order would be contrary to the UK’s obligations under the Refugee Convention or the Human Rights Convention. Where deportation would not be contrary to these obligations, it will only be in exceptional circumstances that the public interest in deportation is outweighed.

Deportation and Article 8

  1. A398. These rules apply where:

  2. (a) a foreign criminal liable to deportation claims that his deportation would be contrary to the United Kingdom’s obligations under Article 8 of the Human Rights Convention;

  3. (b) a foreign criminal applies for a deportation order made against him to be revoked.

  4. 398. Where a person claims that their deportation would be contrary to the UK’s obligations under Article 8 of the Human Rights Convention, and

  5. (a) the deportation of the person from the UK is conducive to the public good and in the public interest because they have been convicted of an offence for which they have been sentenced to a period of imprisonment of at least 4 years;

  6. (b) the deportation of the person from the UK is conducive to the public good and in the public interest because they have been convicted of an offence for which they have been sentenced to a period of imprisonment of less than 4 years but at least 12 months; or

  7. (c) the deportation of the person from the UK is conducive to the public good and in the public interest because, in the view of the Secretary of State, their offending has caused serious harm or they are a persistent offender who shows a particular disregard for the law, the Secretary of State in assessing that claim will consider whether paragraph 399 or 399A applies and, if it does not, the public interest in deportation will only be outweighed by other factors where there are very compelling circumstances over and above those described in paragraphs 399 and 399A.

  8. 399. This paragraph applies where paragraph 398 (b) or (c) applies if –

  9. (a) the person has a genuine and subsisting parental relationship with a child under the age of 18 years who is in the UK, and

    1. (i) the child is a British Citizen; or
    2. (ii) the child has lived in the UK continuously for at least the 7 years immediately preceding the date of the immigration decision; and in either case

    3. (a) it would be unduly harsh for the child to live in the country to which the person is to be deported; and

    4. (b) it would be unduly harsh for the child to remain in the UK without the person who is to be deported; or
  10. (b) the person has a genuine and subsisting relationship with a partner who is in the UK and is a British Citizen or settled in the UK, and

    1. (i) the relationship was formed at a time when the person (deportee) was in the UK lawfully and their immigration status was not precarious; and
    2. (ii) it would be unduly harsh for that partner to live in the country to which the person is to be deported, because of compelling circumstances over and above those described in paragraph EX.2. of Appendix FM; and
    3. (iii) it would be unduly harsh for that partner to remain in the UK without the person who is to be deported.
  11. 399A. This paragraph applies where paragraph 398(b) or (c) applies if –

  12. (a) the person has been lawfully resident in the UK for most of his life; and
  13. (b) he is socially and culturally integrated in the UK; and
  14. (c) there would be very significant obstacles to his integration into the country to which it is proposed he is deported.

  15. 399B. Where an Article 8 claim from a foreign criminal is successful:

  16. (a) in the case of a person who is in the UK unlawfully or whose leave to enter or remain has been cancelled by a deportation order, limited leave may be granted for periods not exceeding 30 months and subject to such conditions as the Secretary of State considers appropriate;
  17. (b) in the case of a person who has not been served with a deportation order, any limited leave to enter or remain may be curtailed to a period not exceeding 30 months and conditions may be varied to such conditions as the Secretary of State considers appropriate;
  18. (c) indefinite leave to enter or remain may be revoked under section 76 of the 2002 Act and limited leave to enter or remain granted for a period not exceeding 30 months subject to such conditions as the Secretary of State considers appropriate;
  19. (d) revocation of a deportation order does not confer entry clearance or leave to enter or remain or re-instate any previous leave.

  20. 399C. Where a foreign criminal who has previously been granted a period of limited leave under this Part applies for further limited leave or indefinite leave to remain his deportation remains conducive to the public good and in the public interest notwithstanding the previous grant of leave.

  21. 399D. Where a foreign criminal has been deported and enters the United Kingdom in breach of a deportation order enforcement of the deportation order is in the public interest and will be implemented unless there are very exceptional circumstances.

  22. 400. Where a person claims that their removal under paragraphs 8 to 10 of Schedule 2 to the Immigration Act 1971, section 10 of the Immigration and Asylum Act 1999 or section 47 of the Immigration, Asylum and Nationality Act 2006 would be contrary to the UK’s obligations under Article 8 of the Human Rights Convention, the Secretary of State may require an application under paragraph 276ADE(1) (private life) or under paragraphs R-LTRP.1.1.(a), (b) and (d), R-LTRPT.1.1.(a), (b) and (d) and EX.1. of Appendix FM (family life as a partner or parent) of these rules. Where an application is not required, in assessing that claim the Secretary of State or an immigration officer will, subject to paragraph 353, consider that claim against the requirements to be met (except the requirement to make a valid application) under paragraph 276ADE(1) (private life) or paragraphs R-LTRP.1.1.(a), (b) and (d), R-LTRPT.1.1.(a), (b) and (d) and EX.1. of Appendix FM (family life as a partner or parent) of these rules as appropriate and if appropriate the removal decision will be cancelled.