Immigration Rules

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Immigration Rules part 11: asylum

Asylum (paragraphs 326A to 352H).

326A. Procedure

The procedures set out in these Rules shall apply to the consideration of admissible applications for asylum and humanitarian protection.

  1. 326B. Where the Secretary of State is considering a claim for asylum or humanitarian protection under this Part, she will consider any Article 8 elements of that claim in line with the provisions of Appendix FM (family life) and in line with paragraphs 276ADE(1) to 276DH (private life) of these Rules which are relevant to those elements unless the person is someone to whom Part 13 of these Rules applies.

Definition of EU asylum applicant

  1. 326C. Under this Part an EU asylum applicant is a national of a Member State of the European Union who either;
    1. (a) makes a request to be recognised a refugee under the Refugee Convention on the basis that it would be contrary to the United Kingdom’s obligations under the Refugee Convention for them to be removed from or required to leave the United Kingdom, or
    2. (b) otherwise makes a request for international protection. “EU asylum application” shall be construed accordingly.
  2. 326D. ‘Member State’ has the same meaning as in Schedule 1 to the European Communities Act 1972”.

Inadmissibility of EU asylum applications

  1. 326E. An EU asylum application will be declared inadmissible and will not be considered unless the requirement in paragraph 326F is met.
  1. 326F. An EU asylum application will only be admissible if the applicant satisfies the Secretary of State that there are exceptional circumstances which require the application to be admitted for full consideration. Exceptional circumstances may include in particular:
    1. (a) the Member State of which the applicant is a national has derogated from the European Convention on Human Rights in accordance with Article 15 of that Convention;
    2. (b) the procedure detailed in Article 7(1) of the Treaty on European Union has been initiated, and the Council or, where appropriate, the European Council, has yet to make a decision as required in respect of the Member State of which the applicant is a national; or
    3. (c) the Council has adopted a decision in accordance with Article 7(1) of the Treaty on European Union in respect of the Member State of which the applicant is a national, or the European Council has adopted a decision in accordance with Article 7(2) of that Treaty in respect of the Member State of which the applicant is a national.

Definition of asylum applicant

  1. 327. Under the Rules an asylum applicant is a person who either;
    1. (a) makes a request to be recognised as a refugee under the Refugee Convention on the basis that it would be contrary to the United Kingdom’s obligations under the Refugee Convention for them to be removed from or required to leave the United Kingdom, or
    2. (b) otherwise makes a request for international protection. “Application for asylum” shall be construed accordingly.
  2. 327A. Every person has the right to make an application for asylum on their own behalf.

Applications for asylum

  1. 328. All asylum applications will be determined by the Secretary of State in accordance with the Refugee Convention. Every asylum application made by a person at a port or airport in the United Kingdom will be referred by the Immigration Officer for determination by the Secretary of State in accordance with these Rules.
  2. 328A. The Secretary of State shall ensure that authorities which are likely to be addressed by someone who wishes to make an application for asylum are able to advise that person how and where such an application may be made.
  3. 329. Until an asylum application has been determined by the Secretary of State or the Secretary of State has issued a certificate under Part 2, 3, 4 or 5 of Schedule 3 to the Asylum and Immigration (Treatment of Claimants, etc.) Act 2004 no action will be taken to require the departure of the asylum applicant or their dependants from the United Kingdom.
  4. 330. If the Secretary of State decides to grant refugee status and the person has not yet been given leave to enter, the Immigration Officer will grant limited leave to enter.
  5. 331. If a person seeking leave to enter is refused asylum or their application for asylum is withdrawn or treated as withdrawn under paragraph 333C of these Rules, the Immigration Officer will consider whether or not they are in a position to decide to give or refuse leave to enter without interviewing the person further. If the Immigration Officer decides that a further interview is not required they may serve the notice giving or refusing leave to enter by post. If the Immigration Officer decides that a further interview is required, they will then resume their examination to determine whether or not to grant the person leave to enter under any other provision of these Rules. If the person fails at any time to comply with a requirement to report to an Immigration Officer for examination, the Immigration Officer may direct that the person’s examination shall be treated as concluded at that time. The Immigration Officer will then consider any outstanding applications for entry on the basis of any evidence before them.
  6. 332. If a person who has been refused leave to enter makes an application for asylum and that application is refused or withdrawn or treated as withdrawn under paragraph 333C of these Rules, leave to enter will again be refused unless the applicant qualifies for admission under any other provision of these Rules.
  7. 333. Written notice of decisions on applications for asylum shall be given in reasonable time. Where the applicant is legally represented, notice may instead be given to the representative. Where the applicant has no legal representative and free legal assistance is not available, they shall be informed of the decision on the application for asylum and, if the application is rejected, how to challenge the decision, in a language that they may reasonably be supposed to understand.
  8. 333A. The Secretary of State shall ensure that a decision is taken on each application for asylum as soon as possible, without prejudice to an adequate and complete examination.
  1. Where a decision on an application for asylum cannot be taken within six months of the date it was recorded, the Secretary of State shall either:
    1. (a) inform the applicant of the delay; or
    2. (b) if the applicant has made a specific written request for it, provide information on the timeframe within which the decision on their application is to be expected. The provision of such information shall not oblige the Secretary of State to take a decision within the stipulated time-frame.
  2. 333B. Applicants for asylum shall be allowed an effective opportunity to consult, at their own expense or at public expense in accordance with provision made for this by the Legal Aid Agency or otherwise, a person who is authorised under Part V of the Immigration and Asylum Act 1999 to give immigration advice. This paragraph shall also apply where the Secretary of State is considering revoking a person’s refugee status in accordance with these Rules.

Withdrawal of applications

  1. 333C. If an application for asylum is withdrawn either explicitly or implicitly, consideration of it may be discontinued. An application will be treated as explicitly withdrawn if the applicant signs the relevant form provided by the Secretary of State. An application may be treated as impliedly withdrawn if an applicant leaves the United Kingdom without authorisation at any time prior to the conclusion of their asylum claim, or fails to complete an asylum questionnaire as requested by the Secretary of State, or fails to attend the personal interview as provided in paragraph 339NA of these Rules unless the applicant demonstrates within a reasonable time that that failure was due to circumstances beyond their control. The Secretary of State will indicate on the applicant’s asylum file that the application for asylum has been withdrawn and consideration of it has been discontinued.

Grant of refugee status

  1. 334. An asylum applicant will be granted refugee status in the United Kingdom if the Secretary of State is satisfied that:
    1. (i) they are in the United Kingdom or have arrived at a port of entry in the United Kingdom;
    2. (ii) they are a refugee, as defined in regulation 2 of The Refugee or Person in Need of International Protection (Qualification) Regulations 2006;
    3. (iii) there are no reasonable grounds for regarding them as a danger to the security of the United Kingdom;
    4. (iv) having been convicted by a final judgment of a particularly serious crime, they do not constitute a danger to the community of the United Kingdom; and
    5. (v) refusing their application would result in them being required to go (whether immediately or after the time limited by any existing leave to enter or remain) in breach of the Refugee Convention, to a country in which their life or freedom would be threatened on account of their race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership of a particular social group.
  2. 335. If the Secretary of State decides to grant refugee status to a person who has previously been given leave to enter (whether or not the leave has expired) or to a person who has entered without leave, the Secretary of State will vary the existing leave or grant limited leave to remain.

Refusal of asylum

  1. 336. An application which does not meet the criteria set out in paragraph 334 will be refused. Where an application for asylum is refused, the reasons in fact and law shall be stated in the decision and information provided in writing on how to challenge the decision.
  2. 337. DELETED
  3. 338. DELETED
  4. 339. DELETED

Revocation or refusal to renew a grant of refugee status

  1. 338A. A person’s grant of refugee status under paragraph 334 shall be revoked or not renewed if any of paragraphs 339A to 339AB apply. A person’s grant of refugee status under paragraph 334 may be revoked or not renewed if paragraph 339AC applies.

Refugee Convention ceases to apply (cessation)

  1. 339A. This paragraph applies when the Secretary of State is satisfied that one or more of the following applies:
    1. (i) they have voluntarily re-availed themselves of the protection of the country of nationality;
    2. (ii) having lost their nationality, they have voluntarily re-acquired it;
    3. (iii) they have acquired a new nationality, and enjoy the protection of the country of their new nationality;
    4. (iv) they have voluntarily re-established themselves in the country which they left or outside which they remained owing to a fear of persecution;
    5. (v) they can no longer, because the circumstances in connection with which they have been recognised as a refugee have ceased to exist, continue to refuse to avail themselves of the protection of the country of nationality; or
    6. (vi) being a stateless person with no nationality, they are able, because the circumstances in connection with which they have been recognised as a refugee have ceased to exist, to return to the country of former habitual residence

In considering (v) and (vi), the Secretary of State shall have regard to whether the change of circumstances is of such a significant and non-temporary nature that the refugee’s fear of persecution can no longer be regarded as well-founded.

Exclusion from the Refugee Convention

  1. 339AA. This paragraph applies where the Secretary of State is satisfied that the person should have been or is excluded from being a refugee in accordance with regulation 7 of The Refugee or Person in Need of International Protection (Qualification) Regulations 2006.

As regards the application of Article 1F of the Refugee Convention, this paragraph also applies where the Secretary of State is satisfied that the person has instigated or otherwise participated in the crimes or acts mentioned therein.

Misrepresentation

  1. 339AB. This paragraph applies where the Secretary of State is satisfied that the person’s misrepresentation or omission of facts, including the use of false documents, were decisive for the grant of refugee status.

Danger to the United Kingdom

  1. 339AC. This paragraph applies where the Secretary of State is satisfied that:
    1. (i) there are reasonable grounds for regarding the person as a danger to the security of the United Kingdom; or
    2. (ii) having been convicted by a final judgment of a particularly serious crime, the person constitutes a danger to the community of the United Kingdom.
  1. 339B. When a person’s refugee status is revoked or not renewed any limited or indefinite leave which they have may be curtailed or cancelled.
  2. 339BA. Where the Secretary of State is considering revoking refugee status in accordance with these Rules, the following procedure will apply. The person concerned shall be informed in writing that the Secretary of State is reconsidering their qualification for refugee status and the reasons for the reconsideration. That person shall be given the opportunity to submit, in a personal interview or in a written statement, reasons as to why their refugee status should not be revoked. If there is a personal interview, it shall be subject to the safeguards set out in these Rules.
  1. 339BB. The procedure in paragraph 339BA is subject to the following exceptions:
    1. (i) where a person acquires British citizenship status, their refugee status is automatically revoked in accordance with paragraph 339A (iii) upon acquisition of that status without the need to follow the procedure.
    2. (ii) where refugee status is revoked under paragraph 339A, or if the person has unequivocally renounced their recognition as a refugee, refugee status may be considered to have lapsed by law without the need to follow the procedure.
  2. 339BC. If the person leaves the United Kingdom, the procedure set out in paragraph 339BA may be initiated, and completed, while the person is outside the United Kingdom.

Grant of humanitarian protection

  1. 339C. A person will be granted humanitarian protection in the United Kingdom if the Secretary of State is satisfied that:
    1. (i) they are in the United Kingdom or have arrived at a port of entry in the United Kingdom;
    2. (ii) they do not qualify as a refugee as defined in regulation 2 of The Refugee or Person in Need of International Protection (Qualification) Regulations 2006;
    3. (iii) substantial grounds have been shown for believing that the person concerned, if returned to the country of return, would face a real risk of suffering serious harm and is unable, or, owing to such risk, unwilling to avail themselves of the protection of that country; and
    4. (iv) they are not excluded from a grant of humanitarian protection.
  1. 339CA. For the purposes of paragraph 339C, serious harm consists of:
    1. (i) the death penalty or execution;
    2. (ii) unlawful killing;
    3. (iii) torture or inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment of a person in the country of return; or
    4. (iv) serious and individual threat to a civilian’s life or person by reason of indiscriminate violence in situations of international or internal armed conflict.

Exclusion from humanitarian protection

  1. 339D. A person is excluded from a grant of humanitarian protection for the purposes of paragraph 339C (iv) where the Secretary of State is satisfied that:
    1. (i) there are serious reasons for considering that they have committed a crime against peace, a war crime, a crime against humanity, or any other serious crime or instigated or otherwise participated in such crimes;
    2. (ii) there are serious reasons for considering that they have guilty of acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations or have committed, prepared or instigated such acts or encouraged or induced others to commit, prepare or instigate such acts;
    3. (iii) there are serious reasons for considering that they constitute a danger to the community or to the security of the United Kingdom; or
    4. (iv) there are serious reasons for considering that they have committed a serious crime; or
    5. (v) prior to their admission to the United Kingdom the person committed a crime outside the scope of (i) and (iv) that would be punishable by imprisonment were it committed in the United Kingdom and the person left their country of origin solely in order to avoid sanctions resulting from the crime.
  2. 339E. If the Secretary of State decides to grant humanitarian protection and the person has not yet been given leave to enter, the Secretary of State or an Immigration Officer will grant limited leave to enter. If the Secretary of State decides to grant humanitarian protection to a person who has been given limited leave to enter (whether or not that leave has expired) or a person who has entered without leave, the Secretary of State will vary the existing leave or grant limited leave to remain.

Refusal of humanitarian protection

  1. 339F. Where the criteria set out in paragraph 339C is not met humanitarian protection will be refused.

Revocation of, ending of or refusal to renew humanitarian protection

  1. 339G. A person’s humanitarian protection granted under paragraph 339C will be revoked or not renewed if any of paragraphs 339GA to 339GB apply. A person’s humanitarian protection granted under paragraph 339C may be revoked or not renewed if any of paragraphs 339GC to paragraph 339GD apply.

Humanitarian protection ceases to apply

  1. 339GA. This paragraph applies where the Secretary of State is satisfied that the circumstances which led to the grant of humanitarian protection have ceased to exist or have changed to such a degree that such protection is no longer required.

In applying this paragraph the Secretary of State shall have regard to whether the change of circumstances is of such a significant and non-temporary nature that the person no longer faces a real risk of serious harm.

Revocation of humanitarian protection on the grounds of exclusion

  1. 339GB. This paragraph applies where the Secretary of State is satisfied that:
    1. (i) the person granted humanitarian protection should have been or is excluded from humanitarian protection because there are serious reasons for considering that they have committed a crime against peace, a war crime, a crime against humanity, or any other serious crime or instigated or otherwise participated in such crimes;
    2. (ii) the person granted humanitarian protection should have been or is excluded from humanitarian protection because there are serious reasons for considering that they are guilty of acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations or have committed, prepared or instigated such acts or encouraged or induced others to commit, prepare or instigate such acts;
    3. (iii) the person granted humanitarian protection should have been or is excluded from humanitarian protection because there are serious reasons for considering that they constitute a danger to the community or to the security of the United Kingdom;
    4. (iv) the person granted humanitarian protection should have been or is excluded from humanitarian protection because there are serious reasons for considering that they have committed a serious crime; or
    5. (v) the person granted humanitarian protection should have been or is excluded from humanitarian protection because prior to their admission to the United Kingdom the person committed a crime outside the scope of paragraph 339GB (i) and (iv) that would be punishable by imprisonment had it been committed in the United Kingdom and the person left their country of origin solely in order to avoid sanctions resulting from the crime.
  2. 339GC. DELETED

Revocation of humanitarian protection on the basis of misrepresentation

  1. 339GD. This paragraph shall apply where the Secretary of State is satisfied that the person granted humanitarian protection misrepresented or omitted facts, including the use of false documents, which were decisive to the grant of humanitarian protection.
  1. 339H. When a person’s humanitarian protection is revoked or not renewed any limited or indefinite leave which they have may be curtailed or cancelled.

Consideration of applications

  1. 339HA. The Secretary of State shall ensure that the personnel examining applications for asylum and taking decisions on the Secretary of State’s behalf have the knowledge with respect to relevant standards applicable in the field of asylum and refugee law.

  2. 339I. When the Secretary of State considers a person’s asylum claim, eligibility for a grant of humanitarian protection or human rights claim it is the duty of the person to submit to the Secretary of State as soon as possible all material factors needed to substantiate the asylum claim or establish that they are a person eligible for humanitarian protection or substantiate the human rights claim, which the Secretary of State shall assess in cooperation with the person.

  1. The material factors include:
    1. (i) the person’s statement on the reasons for making an asylum claim or on eligibility for a grant of humanitarian protection or for making a human rights claim;
    2. (ii) all documentation at the person’s disposal regarding the person’s age, background (including background details of relevant relatives), identity, nationality(ies), country(ies) and place(s) of previous residence, previous asylum applications, travel routes; and
    3. (iii) identity and travel documents.
  2. 339IA. For the purposes of examining individual applications for asylum
    1. (i) information provided in support of an application and the fact that an application has been made shall not be disclosed to the alleged actor(s) of persecution of the applicant, and
    2. (ii) information shall not be obtained from the alleged actor(s) of persecution that would result in their being directly informed that an application for asylum has been made by the applicant in question and would jeopardise the physical integrity of the applicant and their dependants, or the liberty and security of their family members still living in the country of origin.

This paragraph shall also apply where the Secretary of State is considering revoking a person’s refugee status in accordance with these Rules.

  1. 339J. The assessment by the Secretary of State of an asylum claim, eligibility for a grant of humanitarian protection or a human rights claim will be carried out on an individual, objective and impartial basis. This will include taking into account in particular:
    1. (i) all relevant facts as they relate to the country of origin or country of return at the time of taking a decision on the grant; including laws and regulations of the country of origin or country of return and the manner in which they are applied;
    2. (ii) relevant statements and documentation presented by the person including information on whether the person has been or may be subject to persecution or serious harm;
    3. (iii) the individual position and personal circumstances of the person, including factors such as background, gender and age, so as to assess whether, on the basis of the person’s personal circumstances, the acts to which the person has been or could be exposed would amount to persecution or serious harm;
    4. (iv) whether the person’s activities since leaving the country of origin or country of return were engaged in for the sole or main purpose of creating the necessary conditions for making an asylum claim or establishing that they are a person eligible for humanitarian protection or a human rights claim, so as to assess whether these activities will expose the person to persecution or serious harm if returned to that country; and
    5. (v) whether the person could reasonably be expected to avail themselves of the protection of another country where they could assert citizenship.
  2. 339JA. Reliable and up-to-date information shall be obtained from various sources as to the general situation prevailing in the countries of origin of applicants for asylum and, where necessary, in countries through which they have transited. Such information shall be made available to the personnel responsible for examining applications and taking decisions and may be provided to them in the form of a consolidated country information report.

This paragraph shall also apply where the Secretary of State is considering revoking a person’s refugee status in accordance with these Rules.

  1. 339K. The fact that a person has already been subject to persecution or serious harm, or to direct threats of such persecution or such harm, will be regarded as a serious indication of the person’s well-founded fear of persecution or real risk of suffering serious harm, unless there are good reasons to consider that such persecution or serious harm will not be repeated.
  2. 339L. It is the duty of the person to substantiate the asylum claim or establish that they are a person eligible for humanitarian protection or substantiate their human rights claim. Where aspects of the person’s statements are not supported by documentary or other evidence, those aspects will not need confirmation when all of the following conditions are met:
    1. (i) the person has made a genuine effort to substantiate their asylum claim or establish that they are a person eligible for humanitarian protection or substantiate their human rights claim;
    2. (ii) all material factors at the person’s disposal have been submitted, and a satisfactory explanation regarding any lack of other relevant material has been given;
    3. (iii) the person’s statements are found to be coherent and plausible and do not run counter to available specific and general information relevant to the person’s case;
    4. (iv) the person has made an asylum claim or sought to establish that they are a person eligible for humanitarian protection or made a human rights claim at the earliest possible time, unless the person can demonstrate good reason for not having done so; and
    5. (v) the general credibility of the person has been established.
  1. 339M. The Secretary of State may consider that a person has not substantiated their asylum claim or established that they are a person eligible for humanitarian protection or substantiated their human rights claim, and thereby reject their application for asylum, determine that they are not eligible for humanitarian protection or reject their human rights claim, if they fail, without reasonable explanation, to make a prompt and full disclosure of material facts, either orally or in writing, or otherwise to assist the Secretary of State in establishing the facts of the case; this includes, for example, failure to report to a designated place to be fingerprinted, failure to complete an asylum questionnaire or failure to comply with a requirement to report to an immigration officer for examination.
  2. 339MA. Applications for asylum shall be neither rejected nor excluded from examination on the sole ground that they have not been made as soon as possible.
  3. 339N. In determining whether the general credibility of the person has been established the Secretary of State will apply the provisions in s.8 of the Asylum and Immigration (Treatment of Claimants, etc.) Act 2004.

Personal interview

  1. 339NA. Before a decision is taken on the application for asylum, the applicant shall be given the opportunity of a personal interview on their application for asylum with a representative of the Secretary of State who is legally competent to conduct such an interview.
  1. The personal interview may be omitted where:
    1. (i) the Secretary of State is able to take a positive decision on the basis of evidence available;
    2. (ii) the Secretary of State has already had a meeting with the applicant for the purpose of assisting them with completing their application and submitting the essential information regarding the application;
    3. (iii) the applicant, in submitting their application and presenting the facts, has only raised issues that are not relevant or of minimal relevance to the examination of whether they are a refugee, as defined in regulation 2 of the Refugee or Person in Need of International Protection (Qualification) Regulations 2006;
    4. (iv) the applicant has made inconsistent, contradictory, improbable or insufficient representations which make their claim clearly unconvincing in relation to having been the object of persecution;
    5. (v) the applicant has submitted a subsequent application which does not raise any relevant new elements with respect to their particular circumstances or to the situation in their country of origin;
    6. (vi) the applicant is making an application merely in order to delay or frustrate the enforcement of an earlier or imminent decision which would result in their removal;
    7. (vii) it is not reasonably practicable, in particular where the Secretary of State is of the opinion that the applicant is unfit or unable to be interviewed owing to enduring circumstances beyond their control; or
    8. (viii) the applicant is an EU national whose claim the Secretary of State has nevertheless decided to consider substantively in accordance with paragraph 326F above.

The omission of a personal interview shall not prevent the Secretary of State from taking a decision on the application.

Where the personal interview is omitted, the applicant and dependants shall be given a reasonable opportunity to submit further information.

  1. 339NB. (i) The personal interview mentioned in paragraph 339NA above shall normally take place without the presence of the applicant’s family members unless the Secretary of State considers it necessary for an appropriate examination to have other family members present.
  2. (ii) The personal interview shall take place under conditions which ensure appropriate confidentiality.
  1. 339NC (i) A written report shall be made of every personal interview containing at least the essential information regarding the asylum application as presented by the applicant in accordance with paragraph 339I of these Rules.
  2. (ii) The Secretary of State shall ensure that the applicant has timely access to the report of the personal interview and that access is possible as soon as necessary for allowing an appeal to be prepared and lodged in due time.
  3. 339ND The Secretary of State shall provide at public expense an interpreter for the purpose of allowing the applicant to submit their case, wherever necessary. The Secretary of State shall select an interpreter who can ensure appropriate communication between the applicant and the representative of the Secretary of State who conducts the interview.
  4. 339NE The Secretary of State may require an audio recording to be made of the personal interview referred to in paragraph 339NA. Where an audio recording is considered necessary for the processing of a claim for asylum, the Secretary of State shall inform the applicant in advance that the interview will be recorded.

Internal relocation

  1. 339O (i) The Secretary of State will not make:
    1. (a) a grant of refugee status if in part of the country of origin a person would not have a well founded fear of being persecuted, and the person can reasonably be expected to stay in that part of the country; or
    2. (b) a grant of humanitarian protection if in part of the country of return a person would not face a real risk of suffering serious harm, and the person can reasonably be expected to stay in that part of the country.
    3. (ii) In examining whether a part of the country of origin or country of return meets the requirements in (i) the Secretary of State, when making a decision on whether to grant asylum or humanitarian protection, will have regard to the general circumstances prevailing in that part of the country and to the personal circumstances of the person.
    4. (iii) (i) applies notwithstanding technical obstacles to return to the country of origin or country of return

Sur place claims

  1. 339P. A person may have a well-founded fear of being persecuted or a real risk of suffering serious harm based on events which have taken place since the person left the country of origin or country of return and/or activities which have been engaged in by a person since they left the country of origin or country of return, in particular where it is established that the activities relied upon constitute the expression and continuation of convictions or orientations held in the country of origin or country of return.

Residence Permits

  1. 339Q(i) The Secretary of State will issue to a person granted refugee status in the United Kingdom a residence permit as soon as possible after the grant of refugee status. The residence permit may be valid for five years and renewable, unless compelling reasons of national security or public order otherwise require or where there are reasonable grounds for considering that the applicant is a danger to the security of the United Kingdom or having been convicted by a final judgment of a particularly serious crime, the applicant constitutes a danger to the community of the United Kingdom or the person’s character, conduct or associations otherwise require..
  2. (ii) The Secretary of State will issue to a person granted humanitarian protection in the United Kingdom a residence permit as soon as possible after the grant of humanitarian protection. The residence permit may be valid for five years and renewable, unless compelling reasons of national security or public order otherwise require or where there are reasonable grounds for considering that the person granted humanitarian protection is a danger to the security of the United Kingdom or having been convicted by a final judgment of a serious crime, this person constitutes a danger to the community of the United Kingdom or the person’s character, conduct or associations otherwise require..
  3. (iii) The Secretary of State will issue a residence permit to a family member of a person granted refugee status or humanitarian protection where the family member does not qualify for such status. A residence permit may be granted for a period of five years. The residence permit is renewable on the terms set out in (i) and (ii) respectively. “Family member” for the purposes of this sub-paragraph refers only to those who are treated as dependants for the purposes of paragraph 349.
  4. (iv) The Secretary of State may revoke or refuse to renew a person’s residence permit where their grant of refugee status or humanitarian protection is revoked under the provisions in the immigration rules.

Requirements for indefinite leave to remain for persons granted refugee status or humanitarian protection

  1. 339R. The requirements for indefinite leave to remain for a person granted refugee status or humanitarian protection, or their dependants granted refugee status or humanitarian protection in line with the main applicant or any dependant granted leave to enter or remain in accordance with the requirements of paragraphs 352A to 352FJ of these Rules (Family Reunion), are that:
    1. (i) the applicant has held a residence permit issued under paragraph 339Q for a continuous period of five years in the UK; and
    2. (ii) the applicant’s residence permit has not been revoked or not renewed under paragraphs 339A or 339G of the immigration rules; and
    3. (iii) the applicant has not:
      1. a. been convicted of an offence for which they have been sentenced to imprisonment for at least 4 years; or
      2. b. been convicted of an offence for which they have been sentenced to imprisonment for at least 12 months but less than 4 years, unless a period of 15 years has passed since the end of the sentence; or
      3. c. been convicted of an offence for which they have been sentenced to imprisonment for less than 12 months, unless a period of 7 years has passed since the end of the sentence; or
      4. d. within the 24 months prior to the date on which the application has been decided, been convicted of or admitted an offence for which they have received a non-custodial sentence or other out of court disposal that is recorded on their criminal record; or
      5. e. in the view of the Secretary of State caused serious harm by their offending or persistently offended and shown a particular disregard for the law; or
      6. f. in the view of the Secretary of State, at the date on which the application has been decided, demonstrated the undesirability of granting settlement in the United Kingdom in light of his or her conduct (including convictions which do not fall within paragraphs 339R(iii)(a-e)), character or associations or the fact that he or she represents a threat to national security.

Indefinite leave to remain for a person granted refugee status or humanitarian protection

  1. 339S. Indefinite leave to remain for a person granted refugee status or humanitarian protection will be granted where each of the requirements in paragraph 339R is met.

Refusal of indefinite leave to remain for a person granted refugee status or humanitarian protection

  1. 339T. (i) Indefinite leave to remain for a person granted refugee status or humanitarian protection is to be refused if any of the requirements of paragraph 339R is not met.
  2. (ii) An applicant refused indefinite leave to remain under paragraph 339T(i) may apply to have their residence permit extended in accordance with paragraph 339Q to 339QD.

Consideration of asylum applications and human rights claims

  1. 340. DELETED
  2. 341. DELETED
  3. 342. DELETED
  4. 343. DELETED
  5. 344. DELETED

Travel documents

  1. 344A(i). After having received a complete application for a travel document, the Secretary of State will issue to a person granted refugee status in the United Kingdom and their family members travel documents, in the form set out in the Schedule to the Refugee Convention, for the purpose of travel outside the United Kingdom, unless compelling reasons of national security or public order otherwise require.
  2. (ii) After having received a complete application for a travel document, the Secretary of State will issue to a person granted humanitarian protection in the United Kingdom and their family members a travel document where that person is unable to obtain a national passport or other identity documents which enable that person to travel, unless compelling reasons of national security or public order otherwise require.
  3. (iii) Where the person referred to in (ii) can obtain a national passport or identity documents but has not done so, the Secretary of State will issue that person with a travel document where that person can show that they have made reasonable attempts to obtain a national passport or identity document and there are serious humanitarian reasons for travel.
  4. (iv) For the purposes of paragraph 344A, a ‘family member’ refers only to a person who has been treated as a dependant under paragraph 349 of these Rules or a person who has been granted leave to enter or remain in accordance with paragraphs 352A-352FJ of these Rules.

Access to Employment

  1. 344B. The Secretary of State will not impose conditions restricting the employment or occupation in the United Kingdom of a person granted refugee status or humanitarian protection.

Information

  1. 344C. A person who is granted refugee status or humanitarian protection will be provided with access to information in a language that they may reasonably be supposed to understand which sets out the rights and obligations relating to that status. The Secretary of State will provide the information as soon as possible after the grant of refugee status or humanitarian protection.
  1. 345. DELETED
  2. 345(2A) DELETED

Inadmissibility of non-EU applications for asylum

  1. 345A. An asylum claim will be declared inadmissible and will not be substantively considered if the Secretary of State determines that one of the following conditions are met:
    1. (i) another Member State has granted refugee status;
    2. (ii) a country which is not a Member State is considered to be a first country of asylum for the applicant, according to the requirements of paragraph 345B;
    3. (iii) a country which is not a Member State is considered to be a safe third country for the applicant, according to the requirements of paragraphs 345C and 345D;
    4. (iv) the applicant is allowed to remain in the United Kingdom on some other grounds and as a result of this has been granted a status equivalent to the rights and benefits of refugee status;
    5. (v) the applicant is allowed to remain in the United Kingdom on some other grounds which protect them against refoulement pending the outcome of a procedure for determining their status in accordance with (iii) above.

First Country of Asylum

  1. 345B. A country is a first country of asylum, for a particular applicant, if:
    1. (i) the applicant has been recognised in that country as a refugee and they can still avail themselves of that protection; or
    2. (ii) the applicant otherwise enjoys sufficient protection in that country, including benefiting from the principle of non-refoulement; and
    3. (iii) the applicant will be readmitted to that country in either case.

Safe Third Country

  1. 345C. A country is a safe third country for a particular applicant if:
    1. (i) the applicant’s life and liberty will not be threatened on account of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion in that country;
    2. (ii) the principle of non-refoulement will be respected in that country in accordance with the Refugee Convention;
    3. (iii) the prohibition of removal, in violation of the right to freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment as laid down in international law, is respected in that country;
    4. (iv) the possibility exists to request refugee status and, if found to be a refugee, to receive protection in accordance with the Refugee Convention in that country;
    5. (v) there is a sufficient degree of connection between the person seeking asylum and that country on the basis of which it would be reasonable for them to go there; and
    6. (vi) the applicant will be admitted to that country.

Safe Third Country connectivity

  1. 345D. In order to determine whether it is reasonable for an individual to be removed to a safe third country in accordance with paragraph 345C(v), the Secretary of State may have regard to, but is not limited to:
    1. (i) any time the applicant has spent in the third country;
    2. (ii) any relationship with persons in the third country which may include:
      1. a. nationals of the third country;
      2. b. non-citizens who are habitually resident in the third country;
      3. c. family members seeking status in the third country;
    3. (iii) family lineage, regardless of whether close family are present in the third country; or
    4. (iv) any cultural or ethnic connections.

Dublin Transfers

  1. 345E. The Secretary of State shall decline to substantively consider an asylum claim if the applicant is transferable to another country in accordance with the Dublin Regulation.

Previously rejected applications

  1. 346. DELETED
  2. 347. DELETED

Rights of appeal

  1. 348. DELETED

Dependants

  1. 349. A spouse, civil partner, unmarried partner, or minor child accompanying a principal applicant may be included in the application for asylum as a dependant, provided, in the case of an adult dependant with legal capacity, the dependant consents to being treated as such at the time the application is lodged. A spouse, civil partner, unmarried partner or minor child may also claim asylum in their own right. If the principal applicant is granted refugee status or humanitarian protection and leave to enter or remain any spouse, civil partner, unmarried partner or minor child will be granted leave to enter or remain for the same duration. The case of any dependant who claims asylum in their own right will be also considered individually in accordance with paragraph 334 above. An applicant under this paragraph, including an accompanied child, may be interviewed where they make a claim as a dependant or in their own right.

If the spouse, civil partner, unmarried partner, or minor child in question has a claim in their own right, that claim should be made at the earliest opportunity. Any failure to do so will be taken into account and may damage credibility if no reasonable explanation for it is given. Where an asylum or humanitarian protection application is unsuccessful, at the same time that asylum or humanitarian protection is refused the applicant may be notified of removal directions or served with a notice of the Secretary of State’s intention to deport them, as appropriate. In this paragraph and paragraphs 350-352 a child means a person who is under 18 years of age or who, in the absence of documentary evidence establishing age, appears to be under that age. An unmarried partner for the purposes of this paragraph, is a person who has been living together with the principal applicant in a subsisting relationship akin to marriage or a civil partnership for two years or more.

Unaccompanied children

  1. 350. Unaccompanied children may also apply for asylum and, in view of their potential vulnerability, particular priority and care is to be given to the handling of their cases.
  2. 351. A person of any age may qualify for refugee status under the Convention and the criteria in paragraph 334 apply to all cases. However, account should be taken of the applicant’s maturity and in assessing the claim of a child more weight should be given to objective indications of risk than to the child’s state of mind and understanding of their situation. An asylum application made on behalf of a child should not be refused solely because the child is too young to understand their situation or to have formed a well founded fear of persecution. Close attention should be given to the welfare of the child at all times.
  3. 352. Any child over the age of 12 who has claimed asylum in their own right shall be interviewed about the substance of their claim unless the child is unfit or unable to be interviewed. When an interview takes place it shall be conducted in the presence of a parent, guardian, representative or another adult independent of the Secretary of State who has responsibility for the child. The interviewer shall have specialist training in the interviewing of children and have particular regard to the possibility that a child will feel inhibited or alarmed. The child shall be allowed to express themselves in their own way and at their own speed. If they appear tired or distressed, the interview will be suspended. The interviewer should then consider whether it would be appropriate for the interview to be resumed the same day or on another day.
  4. 352ZA. The Secretary of State shall as soon as possible after an unaccompanied child makes an application for asylum take measures to ensure that a representative represents and/or assists the unaccompanied child with respect to the examination of the application and ensure that the representative is given the opportunity to inform the unaccompanied child about the meaning and possible consequences of the interview and, where appropriate, how to prepare themselves for the interview. The representative shall have the right to be present at the interview and ask questions and make comments in the interview, within the framework set by the interviewer.
  5. 352ZB. The decision on the application for asylum shall be taken by a person who is trained to deal with asylum claims from children.

Requirements for limited leave to remain as an unaccompanied asylum seeking child.

  1. 352ZC The requirements to be met in order for a grant of limited leave to remain to be made in relation to an unaccompanied asylum seeking child under paragraph 352ZE are:
    1. a) the applicant is an unaccompanied asylum seeking child under the age of 17 ½ years throughout the duration of leave to be granted in this capacity;
    2. b) the applicant must have applied for asylum and been granted neither refugee status nor Humanitarian Protection;
    3. c) there are no adequate reception arrangements in the country to which they would be returned if leave to remain was not granted;
    4. d) the applicant must not be excluded from being a refugee under Regulation 7 of the Refugee or Person in Need of International Protection (Qualification) Regulations 2006 or excluded from a grant of Humanitarian Protection under paragraph 339D or both;
    5. e) there are no reasonable grounds for regarding the applicant as a danger to the security of the United Kingdom;
    6. f) the applicant has not been convicted by a final judgment of a particularly serious crime, and the applicant does not constitute a danger to the community of the United Kingdom; and
    7. g) the applicant is not, at the date of their application, the subject of a deportation order or a decision to make a deportation order.
  1. 352ZD An unaccompanied asylum seeking child is a person who:
    1. a) is under 18 years of age when the asylum application is submitted.
    2. b) is applying for asylum in their own right; and
    3. c) is separated from both parents and is not being cared for by an adult who in law or by custom has responsibility to do so.
  2. 352ZE. Limited leave to remain should be granted for a period of 30 months or until the child is 17 ½ years of age whichever is shorter, provided that the Secretary of State is satisfied that the requirements in paragraph 352ZC are met.
  3. 352ZF. Limited leave granted under this provision will cease if
    1. a) any one or more of the requirements listed in paragraph 352ZC cease to be met, or
    2. b) a misrepresentation or omission of facts, including the use of false documents, were decisive for the grant of leave under 352ZE.

Family Reunion Requirements for leave to enter or remain as the partner of a refugee

  1. 352A. The requirements to be met by a person seeking leave to enter or remain in the United Kingdom as the partner of a person granted refugee status are that:
    1. (i) the applicant is the partner of a person who currently has refugee status granted under the Immigration Rules in the United Kingdom; and
    2. (ii) the marriage or civil partnership did not take place after the person granted refugee status left the country of their former habitual residence in order to seek asylum or the parties have been living together in a relationship akin to marriage or a civil partnership which has subsisted for two years or more before the person granted refugee status left the country of their former habitual residence in order to seek asylum; and
    3. (iii) the relationship existed before the person granted refugee status left the country of their former habitual residence in order to seek asylum; and
    4. (iv) the applicant would not be excluded from protection by virtue of paragraph 334(iii) or (iv) of these Rules or Article 1F of the Refugee Convention if they were to seek asylum in their own right; and
    5. (v) each of the parties intends to live permanently with the other as their spouse or civil partner and the marriage is subsisting; and
    6. (vi) the applicant and their partner must not be within the prohibited degree of relationship; and
    7. (vii) if seeking leave to enter, the applicant holds a valid United Kingdom entry clearance for entry in this capacity.
  1. 352AA. DELETED

Granting family reunion to the partner of a refugee

  1. 352B. Limited leave to enter the United Kingdom as the partner of a person who currently has refugee status may be granted provided a valid United Kingdom entry clearance for entry in this capacity is produced to the Immigration Officer on arrival. Limited leave to remain in the United Kingdom as the partner of a person who currently has refugee status may be granted provided the Secretary of State is satisfied that each of the requirements of paragraph 352A (i) to (vi) are met.
  2. 352BA Limited leave to enter the United Kingdom as the unmarried or same-sex partner of a person who currently has refugee status may be granted provided a valid United Kingdom entry clearance for entry in this capacity is produced to the Immigration Officer on arrival. Limited leave to remain in the United Kingdom as the unmarried or same sex partner of a person who currently has refugee status may be granted provided the Secretary of State is satisfied that each of the requirements of paragraph 352AA (i) - (vii) are met.

Refusing family reunion to the partner of a refugee

  1. 352C. Limited leave to enter the United Kingdom as the partner of a person who currently has refugee status is to be refused if a valid United Kingdom entry clearance for entry in this capacity is not produced to the Immigration Officer on arrival. Limited leave to remain as the partner of a person who currently has refugee status is to be refused if the Secretary of State is not satisfied that each of the requirements of paragraph 352A (i) to (vi) are met.
  2. 352CA DELETED

Requirements for leave to enter or remain as the child of a refugee

  1. 352D. The requirements to be met by a person seeking leave to enter or remain in the United Kingdom in order to join or remain with the parent who currently has refugee status are that the applicant:
    1. (i) is the child of a parent who currently has refugee status granted under the Immigration Rules in the United Kingdom; and
    2. (ii) is under the age of 18; and
    3. (iii) is not leading an independent life, is unmarried and is not a civil partner, and has not formed an independent family unit; and
    4. (iv) was part of the family unit of the person granted asylum at the time that the person granted asylum left the country of their habitual residence in order to seek asylum; and
    5. (v) the applicant would not be excluded from protection by virtue of paragraph 334(iii) or (iv) of these Rules or Article 1F of the Refugee Convention if they were to seek asylum in their own right; and
    6. (vi) if seeking leave to enter, holds a valid United Kingdom entry clearance for entry in this capacity.

Granting family reunion to the child of a refugee

  1. 352E. Limited leave to enter the United Kingdom as the child of a person who currently has refugee status may be granted provided a valid United Kingdom entry clearance for entry in this capacity is produced to the Immigration Officer on arrival. Limited leave to remain in the United Kingdom as the child of a person who currently has refugee status may be granted provided the Secretary of State is satisfied that each of the requirements of paragraph 352D (i) to (v) are met.

Refusing family reunion to the child of a refugee

  1. 352F. Limited leave to enter the United Kingdom as the child of a person who currently has refugee status is to be refused if a valid United Kingdom entry clearance for entry in this capacity is not produced to the Immigration Officer on arrival. Limited leave to remain as the child of a person who currently has refugee status is to be refused if the Secretary of State is not satisfied that each of the requirements of paragraph 352D (i) to (v) are met.

Requirements for leave to enter or remain as the partner of a person with humanitarian protection

  1. 352FA. The requirements to be met by a person seeking leave to enter or remain in the United Kingdom as the partner of a person who currently has humanitarian protection and was granted that status on or after 30 August 2005 are that:
    1. (i) the applicant is the partner of a person who currently has humanitarian protection granted under the Immigration Rules in the United Kingdom and was granted that status on or after 30 August 2005; and
    2. (ii) the marriage or civil partnership did not take place after the person granted humanitarian protection left the country of their former habitual residence in order to seek asylum in the United Kingdom or the parties have been living together in a relationship akin to marriage or a civil partnership which has subsisted for two years or more before the person granted humanitarian protection left the country of their former habitual residence in order to seek asylum; and
    3. (iii) the relationship existed before the person granted humanitarian protection left the country of their former habitual residence in order to seek asylum; and
    4. (iv) the applicant would not be excluded from a grant of humanitarian protection for any of the reasons in paragraph 339D; and
    5. (v) each of the parties intend to live permanently with the other as their spouse or civil partner and the marriage or civil partnership is subsisting; and
    6. (vi) the applicant and their partner must not be within the prohibited degree of relationship; and
    7. (vii) if seeking leave to enter, the applicant holds a valid United Kingdom entry clearance for entry in this capacity.

Granting family reunion to the partner of a person with humanitarian protection

  1. 352FB. Limited leave to enter the United Kingdom as the partner of a person who currently has humanitarian protection may be granted provided a valid United Kingdom entry clearance for entry in this capacity is produced to the Immigration Officer on arrival. Limited leave to remain in the United Kingdom as the partner of a person who currently has humanitarian protection may be granted provided the Secretary of State is satisfied that each of the requirements in sub paragraphs 352FA(i) to (vi) are met.

Refusing family reunion to the partner of a person with humanitarian protection

  1. 352FC. Limited leave to enter the United Kingdom as the partner of a person who currently has humanitarian protection is to be refused if a valid United Kingdom entry clearance for entry in this capacity is not produced to the Immigration Officer on arrival. Limited leave to remain as the partner of a person who currently has humanitarian protection is to be refused if the Secretary of State is not satisfied that each of the requirements in sub paragraphs 352FA (i) to (vi) are met.
  2. 352FD. DELETED
  3. 352FE. DELETED
  4. 352FF. DELETED

Requirements for leave to enter or remain as the child of a person with humanitarian protection

  1. 352FG. The requirements to be met by a person seeking leave to enter or remain in the United Kingdom in order to join or remain with their parent who currently has humanitarian protection and was granted that status on or after 30 August 2005 are that the applicant:
    1. (i) is the child of a parent currently who has humanitarian protection and was granted that status on or after 30 August 2005 under the Immigration Rules in the United Kingdom; and
    2. (ii) is under the age of 18, and
    3. (iii) is not leading an independent life, is unmarried or is not in a civil partnership, and has not formed an independent family unit; and
    4. (iv) was part of the family unit of the person granted humanitarian protection at the time that the person granted humanitarian protection left the country of their habitual residence in order to seek asylum in the United Kingdom; and
    5. (v) would not be excluded from a grant of humanitarian protection for any of the reasons in paragraph 339D; and
    6. (vi) if seeking leave to enter, holds a valid United Kingdom entry clearance for entry in this capacity.

Granting family reunion to the child of a person with humanitarian protection

  1. 352FH. Limited leave to enter the United Kingdom as the child of a person who currently has humanitarian protection may be granted provided a valid United Kingdom entry clearance for entry in this capacity is produced to the Immigration Officer on arrival. Limited leave to remain in the United Kingdom as the child of a person who currently has humanitarian protection may be granted provided the Secretary of State is satisfied that each of the requirements in sub paragraphs 352FG (i) to (v) are met.

Refusing family reunion to the child of a person with humanitarian protection

  1. 352FI. Limited leave to enter the United Kingdom as the child of a person who currently has humanitarian protection is to be refused if a valid United Kingdom entry clearance for entry in this capacity is not produced to the Immigration Officer on arrival. Limited leave to remain as the child of a person who currently has humanitarian protection is to be refused if the Secretary of State is not satisfied that each of the requirements in sub paragraphs 352FG (i) to (v) are met.

Refusing family reunion where the sponsor is a British Citizen

  1. 352FJ. Nothing in paragraphs 352A to 352FI shall allow a person to be granted leave to enter or remain in the United Kingdom as the partner or child of a person who has been granted refugee status, or granted humanitarian protection under the immigration rules in the United Kingdom on or after 30 August 2005, if the person granted refugee status or person granted humanitarian protection, is a British Citizen.

Interpretation

  1. 352G. For the purposes of this Part:
  2. (a) DELETED
  3. (b) “Country of return” means a country or territory listed in paragraph 8(c) of Schedule 2 of the Immigration Act 1971;
  4. (c) “Country of origin” means the country or countries of nationality or, for a stateless person, or former habitual residence.
  5. (d) “Partner” means the applicant‟s spouse, civil partner, or a person who has been living together with the applicant in a relationship akin to a marriage or civil partnership for at least two years prior to the date of application;
  6. (e) “Dublin Regulation” means Regulation (EU) No. 604/2013 establishing the criteria and mechanisms for determining the Member State responsible for examining an application for international protection lodged in one of the Member States by a third-country national or a stateless person

Restriction on study

352H. Where a person is granted leave in accordance with the provisions set out in Part 11 of the Immigration Rules that leave will, in addition to any other conditions which may apply, be granted subject to the condition in Part 15 of these Rules.