Academies funded on estimates

Information for academies funded on estimated pupil numbers


For most academies, the 2015 autumn census return forms the basis for calculating pupil led funding for the 2016 to 2017 academic year. In some cases we use an estimate of pupil numbers if their funding agreement includes a clause to this effect.

The types of academies funded on estimates include:

  • older academies with the funding agreement clause
  • brand new institutions with no previous school
  • growing schools that are still adding year groups

The funding agreement clause may be conditional, and an academy’s allocation is funded on estimates until certain conditions are met. This is usually until all year groups are present, or where occupancy is more than 90% of total capacity. Once these conditions are met, the autumn census becomes the basis for future funding.

Special and alternative provision academies are not funded on estimates as the number of high needs places forms the basis of their general annual grant. More information on how high needs places are funded is available in the high needs funding arrangements for 2016 to 2017 guide.

Estimating your academy funding allocation provides more information on how to estimate a new academy’s funding.

If your institution’s funding is calculated using the autumn census you can find more information in our academies revenue funding allocations guide.

Estimate funding allocation and adjustment cycle

Period Process
November Academies submit estimated pupil numbers to the EFA
January EFA confirms funded pupil numbers
March EFA issues initial funding allocations
September EFA begins payment of initial allocations in monthly instalments
October Academies report actual pupil numbers in the autumn schools census
May EFA issues PNA statements
July EFA begins payment of PNA positive adjustments in monthly instalments (backdated from September)
July Academies agree repayment plans for PNA recoveries
September EFA begins recovery of PNA in instalments from GAG

Revenue funding data collection (RFDC)

Education Funding Agency (EFA) collect the pupil number estimates through the annual RFDC process in October using an online form accessible from the EFA portal.

The estimate of pupil numbers is central to the calculation of an academy’s budget and we work with institutions to ensure this estimate is as accurate as possible. To help with the development of the estimate, the RFDC form includes trend information for the school. It provides, where available, the last five years estimated pupil numbers, the autumn census figures for the same year, the difference between the two, and any funding adjustments arising from the pupil number adjustment (PNA) exercise. EFA review the pupil number estimates to ensure they are reasonable, and that evidence supports any increases.

If an academy in scope for the RFDC does not submit their pupil estimates, EFA will use the census data to calculate their funding - if they are a growing school that is still adding year groups - this can result in a funding shortfall.

Pupil number adjustment (PNA)

Where we initially fund academies based on estimated pupil numbers, we include them in the annual pupil number adjustment (PNA) exercise during the academic year. The exercise determines if adjustments are required to bring initial funding allocations into line with the actual pupil numbers that schools record in the autumn (October) school census.

Some estimate-funded academies have funding agreements with a PNA threshold, where no adjustment will occur if actual pupil numbers vary by more or less than a specified percentage. If an academy’s estimate of pupil numbers is outside the threshold, or no threshold applies, we adjust funding through the PNA process. This results in either an increase or decrease in funding.

We use an academy’s estimated pupil numbers and the funding they receive to produce a per-pupil funding rate for the academic year. We multiply the difference in actual pupil numbers, taking account of any threshold, by the per-pupil rate, to determine the required adjustment. As in previous years, we calculate separate rates and adjustments for the pre-16 school budget share, post-16 funding, and education services grant (ESG).

You can use our PNA calculator (MS Excel Spreadsheet, 19.6KB) with the figures you have for your academy to estimate your own adjustment. The calculator works for the current academic year, as it has for previous years of the PNA exercise. By inputting your own projected numbers, it can also provide a reasonable estimate for future years, to inform your longer-term budget planning.

Academies in scope of PNA receive their statements in May. Academies receive payment of any positive adjustments in July. PNA recoveries start from September, in the following academic year.

Published 2 November 2016
Last updated 13 February 2017 + show all updates
  1. Updated information on the pupil number adjustment (PNA) process for 2016 to 2017 academic year.
  2. First published.