Research and analysis

The integration of macrophyte and phytobenthos surveys as a single biological quality element for the Water Framework Directive

This report describes changes to the diatom and macrophyte assessment methods used to classify macrophytes and phytobenthos for the Water Framework Directive.

Document

The integration of macrophyte and phytobenthos surveys as a single biological quality element for the Water Framework Directive

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Detail

This report describes changes to the diatom and macrophyte assessment methods used to classify macrophytes and phytobenthos for the Water Framework Directive (WFD). It also reviews the options for combining these metrics in a single biological quality element and provides evidence as to when each metric could be used in isolation to produce a reliable classification. Finally it describes a method of including bacterial tufts within the classification to meet the normative definition of the WFD and proposes an approach for the UK administrations to adopt.