Policy paper

2030 Roadmap for India-UK future relations

Published 4 May 2021

2030 Vision

India and the UK are committed to a partnership that delivers for both countries. Our 2030 vision is for revitalised and dynamic connections between our people; re-energised trade, investment and technological collaboration that improves the lives and livelihoods of our citizens; enhanced defence and security cooperation that brings a more secure Indian Ocean Region and Indo-Pacific and India-UK leadership in climate, clean energy and health that acts as a global force for good.

The opportunity

Both India and the UK are vibrant democracies and leading economies of the world with impressive advances and capabilities in human resources, manufacturing, innovation, science, education, research, fintech, space, defence, emerging and green technologies, clean energy among others. Both are suitably placed to bring their respective strengths to address global challenges with regard to climate, security, terrorism and pandemics and believe that democratic norms and principles are the mainstay for maintaining a rules based international system and respect for universal human rights.

Through this ambitious Roadmap, we will elevate the India-UK relationship to a Comprehensive Strategic Partnership (CSP). The Roadmap will guide cooperation for the next ten years covering all aspects of our multi-faceted relations. We will have an annual Strategic Review meeting at the Foreign Minister level to monitor the implementation of the Roadmap, if required update it and report back on the progress to our Prime Ministers.

I. Connecting our countries and people

As two modern, open and democratic societies, we will strengthen the bonds between our countries. The India-UK relationship has at its heart shared history, values and culture, with the strong understanding of each other that it brings. This has created a highly educated, and economically dynamic living bridge, with 1.6m Britons of Indian origin. This inherent strength means our relationship is already broad, with cooperation everywhere from agriculture to space, but we believe it has great potential to grow further. We will upgrade institutional mechanisms that will enable us to set and achieve ambitious goals in all areas of cooperation and strengthen avenues for people to people connect in education, research and innovation, capacity building, employment and culture.

To achieve this and related objectives, we will:

1. Political

1.1 Enhance high level & ministerial contacts to further improve bilateral institutional mechanisms (such as the Economic and Financial Dialogue led by India’s Finance Minister and the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer, the Joint Economic and Trade Committee led by India’s CIM and the UK Secretary of State for International Trade, and the Strategic Dialogue between Defence Ministers)for an in-depth exchange of views on bilateral, regional and global issues with focus on the Commonwealth countries in Africa, CARICOM and Pacific Island States.

1.2 Ensure effective high-level cooperation through biennial India-UK Summits (agreed at PM level in 2015), ministerial meetings and regular high-level exchanges.

1.3 Strengthen cooperation and coordination in the UN, including at the UNSC and UNFCCC, and other multilateral fora such as G-20, WTO (in the run up to the twelfth WTO Ministerial Conference in November 2021), WHO, Commonwealth, IMF and World Bank etc., while preserving their core principles. Promote and uphold a rules-based international system and work together to promote reformed multilateralism to make international organizations, including the UN Security Council, more representative, reflecting contemporary realities, and more effective in addressing current global challenges through regular contacts and exchange of views between MEA and FCDO and between our delegations in New York and Geneva.

1.4 Promote and facilitate regular exchanges between our parliamentarians, judges, executive agencies and public bodies to foster deeper mutual understanding and strengthen our democratic and institutional partnership.

1.5 Promote Track 1.5 and Track 2 Dialogues between our think tanks and academic institutions on various aspects of our strategic relations.

1.6 Enhance India-UK engagement within the Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA) framework as UK is a Dialogue Partner in IORA.

1.7 Enhance convergences and work together on the broader Indo-Pacific Agenda to maintain peace, stability, safety and security in the Indo-Pacific region, and explore the potential for cooperation under the Indo-Pacific Oceans Initiative (IPOI).

2. Migration and mobility

2.1 Implement the comprehensive Migration and Mobility Partnership covering movement of students and professionals as well as irregular migration keeping in view the UK’s new skills based immigration policy no later than April 2022.

2.2 The UK commits to a joint dialogue with India, including relevant stakeholder participation, for mutual exchanges and sharing of information concerning the possibility of signing a Social Security Agreement.

2.3. Engage further on the issue of signing a diplomatic visa waiver arrangement/MOU to facilitate official exchanges.

2.4. Enhance cooperation under the bilateral Extradition and Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties to facilitate speedy conclusion of extradition requests from both sides.

3. Consular cooperation

3.1 Strengthen the India-UK Consular Dialogue to promote closer cooperation in consular matters and to resolve long-running or complex consular cases, develop working-level arrangements to promote safe travel for the millions of Indian and British nationals who travel between our two countries each year, ensuring they are able to access first class consular services when required.

3.2 Establish a working mechanism on cooperation in consular crises, including consular crises in third countries and on best practice for crisis preparedness and crisis management.

4. Education, research and innovation and enterprise

4.1 Expand cooperation between our universities in light of India’s New Education Policy, including by agreeing mutual recognition of qualifications before the end of 2021, simplification of the education regulatory framework, embracing online courses, integrating vocational training into mainstream education and greater international collaboration.

4.2 Work towards mutual recognition of professional qualifications at the earliest possible date.

4.3 Enhance development of direct linkages and partnerships between higher educational institutions of both the countries.

4.4 Support and promote the two-way mobility of a greater number of students, teachers and researchers.

4.5 Enhance exchange of ideas on the India-UK partnership by organising networks of leading think tanks, universities and research organisations, as well as libraries and museums in both countries.

4.6 Enhance cooperation between India and the UK on strengthening the role of women in STEMM at schools, universities, and research institutions and creating an enabling environment for equal participation of women in STEM disciplines through collaboration on new initiatives like Gender Advancement for Transforming Institutions (GATI) project.

4.7 Develop collaborations between Industry, Academia and the Government to foster innovation among school students by focusing on teacher training, mentoring and sharing of global best practices through initiatives like the India Innovation Competency Enhancement Program (IICEP).

4.8 Continue the biennial ministerial UK-India Science and Innovation Council to set the agenda for the two governments’ science, research and innovation collaborations, and align with wider-shared priorities and deliver in partnership.

4.9 Build on the two countries’ existing bilateral research, science and innovation infrastructure and governmental relationships to continue to support high-quality, high-impact research and innovation through joint processes. Position the UK and India as mutual partners of choice and a force for good in the world in areas of shared priority, including health, the circular economy, climate, clean energy, urban development and engineering healthier environments, waste-to-wealth, manufacturing, cyber physical systems, space and related research.

4.10 Forge partnership across the pipeline of research and innovation activity, from basic research to applied and interdisciplinary research and through to translation and commercialisation across government departments to optimise impact, utilize expertise and networks and minimise duplication.

4.11 Leverage and build on existing, long-standing bilateral partnerships such as on education, research and innovation, to stimulate a joint pipeline of talent, excellent researchers and early-career innovators and explore new opportunities for student and researchers exchanges by establishing joint centres and facilitating access to state-of-the-art facilities.

4.12 Establish a series of dialogues / working groups under the Memorandum of Understanding on Telecommunications and ICT agreed between the UK Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) and the Department of Telecoms in India and the Joint Declaration of Intent on Digitalisation between DCMS and the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MEITY), and strengthen the existing India-UK Tech Partnership to tackle global challenges; realising the potential of Artificial Intelligence (AI), and emerging technologies, the benefits of interactive data systems, and the changing use of technology to overcome the digital divide with a particular focus on the digital economy and society; cyber resilience and telecoms; health technologies; and promoting clean growth, smart urbanisation and future mobility. These discussions will inform a new ministerial level Dialogue on Technology.

4.13 Work together to share knowledge and expertise regarding artificial intelligence, scientific support to policies and regulatory aspects including ethics, and promote a dialogue in research and innovation. Through Tech Summits, bring together tech innovators, scientists, entrepreneurs and policy makers to work together on challenges including the norms and governance of future tech under the cross cutting theme of ‘data’.

4.14 Grow programmes such as the Fast Track Start-Up Fund to nurture innovation led, sustainable growth and jobs, and tech solutions that benefit both countries. Explore partnerships with joint investment to enable the growth of technology-enabled innovative businesses and increase the number of start-ups and MSMEs growing and scaling-up internationally, for example in relation to climate and the environment, med tech devices, industrial biotech and agriculture, and sustainable development, helping to achieve the Global Goals by 2030.

4.15 Launch a UK-India Young Entrepreneurship Forum.

4.16 Leverage the Indian and UK strength in Agriculture and allied sciences with a focus on research and innovation to halt the decline in biodiversity associated with large scale approaches to agriculture, improving nutrient and water use efficiency, reducing post-harvest losses, improving shelf life of healthy foods, major animal/aquaculture/plant infections, urban and deep-sea farming, aquaculture diversification, etc. to ensure food security.

4.17 Explore partnership around the future of work as we enter the fourth industrial revolution (4IR) and adapt to working differently and sustainably with new technologies in the post-COVID landscape, in particular creating more opportunities for young people and women to propel the 4IR and understanding the impact and opportunities of this shift and these technologies on people’s lives and culture.

5. Culture

5.1 Enhance collaboration to support the development of our Creative Economies to create wealth and secure livelihoods. Work together to better understand the value and impact of the formal and informal creative economy through research and policy dialogue for long-term impact on GDP.

5.2 Enhance cultural relations with support for collaboration, research and exchange in partnership with cultural innovators, creative organisations and heritage sectors to strengthen the creative economy.

5.3 Strengthen arts and culture capacity programmes and international showcasing opportunities which respond to digital innovation and entrepreneurship in, for example, India’s smart cities and creative sectors to enhance enterprise, exchange and expression in festivals, craft and design, and the heritage economy.

5.4 Deepen India-UK cooperation on approaches to the resilience and protection of cultural heritage assets from risks such as natural disasters; meet the aspirations of young India and the diaspora in the UK through mutual learning and creative exchange to enhance equalities, diversity and inclusion.

5.5 Implement ‘India-UK Together’ (‘SAATH-SAATH’ in Hindi), a joint cultural exchange programme between the two countries to celebrate India’s 75th anniversary of Independence this year. Work towards creating a vibrant arts and culture programme together in 2022 to strengthen artistic collaboration, skills and networks for the creative economies of both countries as part of UK and India’s Living Bridge.

6. Connectivity

6.1 Explore initiatives to improve connectivity between India and the UK and seek synergies between our cooperation on connectivity projects with third countries including in the Indo-Pacific region, respecting countries’ sovereignty and territorial integrity.

6.2 Work towards renewing our air services agreement following the UK’s departure from the European Union.

II. Trade and prosperity

The UK and India partnership will create shared prosperity and deliver leadership in global economic governance. To unlock the potential for the relationship from our dynamic private sectors, we are launching an Enhanced Trade Partnership (ETP), which includes our intent to negotiate a comprehensive Free Trade Agreement.

To achieve these and related outcomes we will:

7. Trade

7.1 Free Trade Agreement – Confirm our intent to finalise the pre-negotiation scoping phase for a Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement by the end of 2021. This will resolve market access issues, boost exports and strengthen our trade partnership across a comprehensive range of areas. Both sides will undertake respective scoping, consultations and domestic processes, with consideration of the opportunity arising from an Interim Agreement, to achieve the early gains of the ETP.

7.2 Remove barriers to trade through a balanced and beneficial market access package under the ETP including on agriculture, healthcare, education, legal services, seafarers, marine, healthcare and social security.

7.3 Continue cooperation under the Joint Working Group on Trade towards reducing/removing market access barriers faced by Indian businesses in the UK and UK businesses in India.

7.4 Continue to share experience on regulatory reform, tax administration, and trade facilitation and standards through the early conclusion of a new and refreshed UK-India Ease of Doing Business MoU. Encourage and institutionalize cooperation between relevant regulators, such as FSSAI and the UK regulator to facilitate exports and avoid trade disruptions due to non-compliance with standards by producers and exporters.

7.5 Increase exchanges and cooperation in the services sector such as IT and digital tech, healthcare and life sciences, financial and professional services, transport & logistics, Business Services, Tourism and Hospitality, Audio-Visual Services and other services. Step up bilateral Small & Medium Enterprises (SME) trade and collaborations, particularly technology sharing and financing of businesses.

7.6 Deepen cooperation on G2G across a broad range of sectors, with a particular focus on infrastructure including airports and multi-modal transport hubs, through the establishment of a G2G bilateral framework through which projects can be facilitated between government and industry.

7.7 Continue to explore specific opportunities to collaborate on the Indian Rail and Land Development Authority’s station redevelopment programme. This collaboration, to be formalised through the signing of an MoU, will capitalise on the UK’s heritage conservation and station renewal expertise and redevelopment experience to support India’s extensive programme to regenerate railway links and community hubs across the country.

7.8 Identify infrastructure projects in India, particularly green transition projects, that utilise UK Export Finance support in the form of long term competitive financing of up to £4bn, including in Indian Rupees.

7.9 Explore longer term options for a UK concessional finance offer to mobilise UK expertise into clean, green and sustainable infrastructure projects in India.

8. Financial cooperation

8.1 Continue to strengthen cooperation under the Economic and Financial Dialogue, held on an annual basis, to realise the potential for increased financial services trade between our two countries.

8.2 Implement the new annual India-UK Financial Markets Dialogue to share expertise, experiences and deepen collaboration between our financial sectors by July 2021.

8.3 Deliver the new UK-India strategic collaboration to accelerate the development of GIFT City, promoting greater links between GIFT City and the UK financial services ecosystem.

8.4 Deepen cooperation on infrastructure through the new UK-India Partnership on Infrastructure Financing and Policy, to support India’s ambitious plans for delivering inclusive, resilient and sustainable infrastructure under the National Infrastructure Pipeline.

8.5 Engage actively under the new UK-India Sustainable Finance Forum to drive forward deeper cooperation between the UK and India on sustainable finance, for catalyzing private sector flows into sustainable sectors in India supported by the industry-led India-UK Sustainable Finance Working Group.

8.6 Strengthen the UK-India Fintech Dialogue to enhance collaboration on financial services, including facilitating faster flows of UK-India remittances. Building on the successful launch of RuPay cards in the UK, explore options for enhancing cross-border payments between the UK and India.

8.7 Drive forward private sector financial cooperation under the India-UK Financial Partnership, with a strong and renewed mandate.

8.8 Build on the UK-India Development Capital Partnerships and strengthen two-way investments between UK and India, with the goal of investing into Indian start-ups, early-stage and green businesses and other innovative ventures and contributing towards sustainable development and the achievement of Global Goals by 2030. Boost entrepreneurial connections and exchanges to promote and strengthen closer cooperation, investment, mentorship and diaspora connects and sharing best practices.

8.9 Continue to encourage the UK’s Development Finance Institution the CDC Group to work with India’s private sector in the sectors most important for inclusive and sustainable economic growth. This includes an emphasis on women’s role as leaders, employees, entrepreneurs, suppliers and customers.

8.10 Take forward our joint investment in the new UK-India Global Innovation Partnership.

9. Investment

9.1 Identify priority areas for partnership and investment in existing and new areas of cooperation including, new and renewable energy, creative industries, advanced engineering, agri-tech, healthcare and life sciences including pharmaceuticals, infrastructure, metallurgy, automotive and agricultural engineering, defence, food processing industry etc.

9.2 Encourage UK companies to invest in India’s manufacturing sector taking advantage of the Production Linked Incentive Scheme including in Electronics, Telecommunication equipment, automotive and pharmaceuticals manufacturing.

9.3 Encourage Indian Companies to raise finance in the London market, including through listings and bond issuance, drawing on the success of the masala bond market.

10. Economic co-operation

10.1 Develop the UK-India partnership on economic cooperation, including through the IES-GES economic exchange, and collaboration on new priority economic reform areas such as sharing of experience on privatization.

10.2 Work together to strengthen global economic governance, partnering in multilateral economic fora such as G20, World Bank and IMF to strengthen global growth and tackle emerging issues. This includes working closely on India’s G20 Presidency in 2023.

11. Smart and sustainable urbanisation

11.1 Launch a new phase of cooperation on urbanisation by supporting smart and sustainable cities, promoting investments, promoting climate action and disaster risk reduction in cities, developing effective solid waste management and treatment and promotion of a circular economy, facilitating sustainable cooling solutions, digitalisation and smart tech, developing effective water supply and sanitation and innovation in housing to help improve our understanding of social and spatial inequality and blue and green spaces in urban areas and engineer healthier environments.

11.2 Facilitate the involvement of businesses in the partnership on smart and sustainable urbanization and support them in identifying partners, access to financing, and adapting technologies and business models to the Indian context.

11.3 Strengthen the Joint Working Group on Sustainable Urban Development through regular implementation and updating of the Joint Action Plan.

11.4 Enhance India-UK technology partnership to include cutting edge urban innovation including Building Information Modelling (BIM), bioclimatic building design and e-mobility.

12. Space

12.1 Set up appropriate mechanisms to strengthen India-UK space cooperation for peaceful purposes in all areas of mutual interest including joint satellites, hosting of payloads, space technology applications, industry interactions and enhanced information sharing, addressing barriers to commerce and increasing bilateral trade in space goods and services.

12.2 Develop an India-UK space cooperation framework including on global governance issues on outer space and hold consultations on space by October 2021. Coordinate in multilateral fora to safeguard Indian, UK, and global interests, recognising the importance of maintaining a safe, stable, secure and sustainable outer space environment.

13. Cooperation in nuclear domain

13.1 Enhance bilateral collaboration on nuclear matters building on the UK-India Joint Working Group, to include mutually beneficial exchanges on nuclear energy, nuclear security and safety, non-proliferation, decommissioning and waste management. Strengthen UK-India exchanges on disarmament and non-proliferation issues and UK’s support for India’s membership in the Nuclear Suppliers Group.

III. Defence and security

India and the UK will work in strategic partnership to strengthen efforts to tackle cyber, space, crime and terrorist threats and develop a free, open and secure Indo-Pacific Region.

Our shared interests will underpin greater cooperation in multilateral fora where a strengthened UK India relationship will build understanding among diverse partners on international security and will help set global rules for cyber security and space taking into account their respective interests.

To achieve this and related objectives, we will:

14. Defence and international security

14.1 Expand cooperation under the Defence and International Security Partnership (DISP) agreed in 2015 and complete a set of framework documents including Logistics and Training MoUs and Grey and Dark shipping information sharing agreements to deepen further our security ties and enable smooth collaboration between our armed services.

15. Maritime Cooperation

15.1 Promote freedom of navigation and open access, and improve maritime cooperation through a partnership in the Western Indian Ocean, with a new Maritime Dialogue, Grey and Dark Shipping information sharing and mechanisms for operational co-ordination all in place.

16. Joint exercises and professional military exchanges

16.1 Conduct Joint Service exercises and demonstrate greater complexity in military exchanges.

16.2 Enhance the UK-India Defence education and reform partnership.

17. Defence collaboration (research, innovation, technology and industry)

17.1 Under the Defence Consultative Group, embark on a new, ambitious Strategic Collaborative Partnership on research, innovation, technology and industry to develop transformational defence and security capabilities to tackle common threats and the operational challenges of the future, building on the current collaboration under the UK-India Defence Technology and Industrial Capability Cooperation (DTICC) MoU.

17.2 Establish a portfolio of UK-India collaborative projects to support the development of new technologies and capabilities, including government-to-government and business-to business arrangements and projects.

17.3 Broaden our dialogue on Combat Air collaboration to determine how the UK can support India’s ambitions for their Light Combat Air MK2 Programme.

18. Cyber security

18.1 Further enhance cooperation to promote international security and stability in cyberspace including through bilateral cooperation on critical national infrastructure, healthcare and vaccines and encouraging cooperation between governments and the private sector to embed safety in ICT products and in system designs while ensuring the protection of user privacy. This will be supported by a framework that recognises the applicability of international law to State behaviour in a free, open, peaceful and secure cyberspace.

18.2 Strengthen bilateral co-operation in priority areas which would include among other things detecting and responding to malicious cyber activities, on-line threats and crimes, cybercrime investigation, capacity building and cooperation in emerging technologies and associated public safety risks. The priority areas will be further elaborated through the India-UK Cyber Dialogue by April 2023.

19. Counter-terrorism

19.1 Strengthen cooperation to take decisive and concerted actions against globally-proscribed terrorists and terror entities.

IV. Climate

India and the UK will work together on one of the biggest challenges the world faces, helping to strengthen collaboration between global partners: we will co-lead global climate action, encouraging others to achieve milestone agreements on climate change, enhance bilateral cooperation towards low carbon development and climate resilient pathways, mobilise investment and channel climate finance towards implementation of the United Nations Framework for the Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Paris Agreement and supporting a resilient recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. We commit to safeguarding our planet and building a more environmentally sustainable and inclusive future together, holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels. Our nationally determined contributions will represent a progression reflecting the highest possible ambition, compatible with the goals of the Paris Agreement.

To achieve this and related objectives, we will:

21. India/UK partnerships

21.1 Strengthen the India-UK partnership on climate change, delivering a substantial contribution to reduced emissions and improved resilience in the context of strong climate action required in the current decade to reach the goals of the UNFCCC and the Paris Agreement.

21.2 Strengthen bilateral dialogues and partnership on climate change, including the Ministerial Energy Dialogue, and Joint Working Groups on Climate, Power and Renewables.

21.3 Collaborate to strengthen climate discourse and decision making in line with the principles of the UNFCCC including its Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement.

21.4 Take forward collaboration and share best practice and low-cost climate appropriate technologies in areas including: clean energy, clean transport & e-mobility, sustainable finance, green businesses, industrial decarbonisation, protecting nature and biodiversity, and adaptation and resilience. We will work with businesses on all of the above priorities to minimize their carbon emissions while generating sustainable inclusive green jobs and growth by switching to renewables, new tech, electric mobility, improved efficiency.

21.5 Build on the India-UK partnership between the Green Growth Equity Fund and National Investment and Infrastructure Fund to mobilise institutional investments in the targeted renewable energy, waste management, electric mobility and environment sub-sectors, building markets and investment opportunities including through the City of London. Enable greater partnership with India’s private sector (including the banking and institutional sector) in shaping and raising global ambitions on climate and green finance.

21.6 Deepen the India-UK Partnership on Green Hydrogen - including through promoting knowledge exchange, policy and regulation cooperation, research and innovation.

21.7 Take forward collaboration through the UK-India Sustainable Finance Forum, supported by the India-UK Sustainable Finance Working Group and explore the possibility of partnership with the Climate Finance Leadership Initiative (CFLI).

21.8 Strengthen collaboration on the India Energy Security Scenarios Calculator to support energy policy and planning.

21.9 Encourage Track II dialogues on climate-related themes including the India-UK Track II Dialogue on Climate and Energy.

22. Clean energy and transport

22.1 Strengthen collaboration to promote secure, affordable and sustainable supplies of energy as shared priorities. Reduce the cost of development and deployment of clean energy projects through technology innovation, market-building, knowledge sharing, capacity building, trade and investment and project establishment, for example on energy efficiency, smart grids, AI and digitalisation, efficient electricity distribution in the solar, offshore wind, sustainable cooling, industrial decarbonisation, carbon capture, usage and storage (CCUS) and energy storage sectors and on green hydrogen.

22.2 Unlock India’s offshore wind potential by sharing knowledge and expertise to support India’s clean energy transition.

22.3 Launch a global Green Grids Initiative at COP26, to include a political declaration by national leaders and increased technical, financial and research cooperation to help deliver India’s vision of One Sun One World One Grid.

22.4 On energy, develop collaboration in research and innovation, demonstration and deployment of technologies to promote bio-economy including biofuels towards low emission pathways and climate resilience.

22.5 Strengthen collaboration on clean transport, including in the areas of e-vehicles, charging infrastructure and battery storage.

22.6 Explore new cooperation in areas including Green Hydrogen, Green Steel and on Battery Manufacturing and Innovation.

23. Adaptation and resilience

23.1 As co-chairs of the Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI), reinforce cooperation on enhancing adaptation and climate change resilience across vulnerable communities, including Small Island Developing States. Both countries will seek to support the development and implementation of plans and strategies for cities and towns and highly vulnerable rural populations as key actors in climate change adaptation.

23.2 Strengthen collaboration for the climate-proofing of infrastructure investment to maximise low carbon and resilience outcomes.

23.3 Work collectively through the Adaptation Action Coalition to highlight good adaptation practices on climate resilient infrastructure, and to scale-up and accelerate adaptation action to support the most vulnerable.

23.4 Strengthen joint collaboration through The Weather and Climate Science for Service Partnership India to advance scientific understanding and modelling capabilities that can be translated into services.

24. Nature and biodiversity

24.1 Strengthen collaboration to protect and restore nature, and explore ways to mainstream biodiversity into economic and financial decision-making. Address air and water pollution and find innovative solutions to tackling plastic and marine pollution, as well as promoting the integration of environmental concerns and solutions into economic growth policies.

24.2 Work together on building a UK-India Forests Partnership.

25. Waste management and the circular economy

25.1 Strengthen cooperation to support India’s transition to a resource efficient and circular economy.

25.2 In waste management under Mission Waste to Wealth, identify, develop and deploy technologies to treat waste to generate energy, recycle materials, and extract resources of value. Identify and support the development of new technologies like the Ocean Thermal Energy conversion, wave energy that promise to create a clean and green environment.

26. Regional and multilateral cooperation

26.1 Explore opportunities for mobilising regional and global climate action including through the CDRI, the International Solar Alliance (ISA) and emerging initiatives including One Sun One World One Grid and the World Solar Bank, and maximizing the opportunities afforded by the UK’s Presidency of COP26 at Glasgow 2021 including the COP26 Energy Transition Council and ZEVs Transition Council and India’s Presidency of the G20 in 2023 to drive climate action over the next ten years.

26.2 As co-chairs of the CDRI, support the creation of a new multi-country Technical Assistance Facility and Fund (TAFF) to support Small Island Developing States (SIDS) to develop more resilient infrastructure. The facility would provide technical assistance to SIDS to help them plan for systemic resilience, to prepare projects fit to attract finance from public, private and multilateral actors and to evolve advanced operation and maintenance standards and systems to enhance long-term resilience.

26.3 Strengthen partnership on climate finance for mobilising major new investment in clean energy and low-cost climate appropriate technologies including to de-risking of investments in mutually identified sectors of economy for clean and resilient development.

26.4 Play supportive roles in the UNFCCC to ensure global coherence in driving down emissions, working together to seek global agreements on critical issues in accordance with national circumstances and sustainable development priorities.

V. Health

As a Global Force for Good in health, the UK and India will use our combined research and innovation strength to address the biggest global health challenges, save lives and improve health and well-being.

We will expand the breadth and depth of the India-UK Health Partnership to enhance global health security and pandemic resilience, show leadership on Anti-Microbial Resistance (AMR), promote healthy societies and strengthen both our health systems through increased collaboration on clinical education, health worker mobility and digital health.

To achieve this and related objectives, we will:

27.1 Hold regular dialogue at Ministerial level on strategic priorities for collaboration in the health sector and through the Joint Working Group on Health and Life Sciences agree an India-UK Action Plan on Health and Life Sciences to establish a detailed framework for collaboration.

28. COVID-19 and pandemic preparedness

28.1 Work together to boost the resilience of global medical supply chains to ensure critical supplies of medicines, vaccines, logistics, diagnostics and other medical products reach those who need them. Jointly commit to the multilateral effort, including through the COVAX facility, to support equitable vaccine access for developing countries.

28.2 Develop the India-UK partnership on Vaccines, Therapeutics and Diagnostics and expand the UK-India Vaccines Hub to develop distribution policy, clinical trials, regulation, research and innovation related to Covid-19, helping guarantee equitable global supply by April 2022.

28.3 Build on the excellent cooperation on the AstraZeneca/Oxford University Vaccine with India’s Serum Institute and explore manufacturing deals beyond Covid19 to tackle other infectious diseases and bring co-developed technologies to market.

28.4 Work together on health security and future pandemic preparedness including through an India-UK Zoonotic Research Twinning Initiative to better understand, monitor and mitigate against future pandemics.

28.5 Jointly work to bring the urgent reforms needed in WHO so that it is better equipped and accountable in responding to pandemic threats.

28.6 Facilitate collaborative research on emerging diseases.

29. Anti-microbial resistance (AMR)

29.1 Take global leadership on tackling the growing health and economic threat of Anti-Microbial Resistance (AMR) on the basis of ‘one health approach’ and foster greater science and innovation engagement on AMR.

30. Non-communicable diseases

30.1 Develop a UK-India Partnership on Healthy Societies by April 2022 to co-develop innovative and inclusive solutions for non-communicable diseases and ageing related challenges.

30.2 Boost existing efforts for the betterment of health and well-being by research and innovation in prevention and treatment of chronic & neurological diseases, brain-computer inter-phase, genomics and precision medicine, cell and gene therapy, vaccines, biotherapeutics (including bio-manufacturing), smart bio-sensors and bio-electronics, biomaterials and bio-fabrication.

31. Digital health

31.1 Develop an India-UK Digital Health Partnership to facilitate greater collaboration on digital health initiatives including on sharing of best practice.

31.2 Explore collaboration in tele-medicine services to enhance health services at remote areas under the Ayushman Bharat Programme.

31.3 Promote joint research and policy engagement on health data for Predictive and Precision Health care focusing on machine learning and artificial intelligence and agree on joint activities in this regard by April 2022.

32. Ayurveda and alternative medicine

32.1. Explore cooperation on research into Ayurveda and promote yoga in the UK.

33. NHS partnership and health worker mobility

33.1 Strengthen mechanisms to facilitate increased transfer/exchange of doctors and nurses on a permanent or short-term basis.

33.2 Increase opportunities for generic medicine supply from India to the UK by seeking access for Indian pharma products to the NHS and recognition of Indian generic and Ayurvedic medicines that meet UK regulatory standards.