This report has been jointly published with the French Autorité de la concurrence. It highlights some of the relevant economic literature and different factors that determine the effects of open and closed systems on competition.
It shows that the effects on competition should be assessed case by case, depending on, for example:
- the degree of competition between systems
- the ease with which consumers can switch between systems
- the degree of coordination required to ensure a system’s viability
- the ability of consumers to assess the overall cost associated with a system before making a choice