Research and analysis

Effects of open and closed systems on competition

This report looks at the economics of open and closed systems on competition and the implications of competition between these systems.

Documents

The economics of open and closed systems

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The economics of open and closed systems (French version)

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Details

This report has been jointly published with the French Autorité de la concurrence. It highlights some of the relevant economic literature and different factors that determine the effects of open and closed systems on competition.

It shows that the effects on competition should be assessed case by case, depending on, for example:

  • the degree of competition between systems
  • the ease with which consumers can switch between systems
  • the degree of coordination required to ensure a system’s viability
  • the ability of consumers to assess the overall cost associated with a system before making a choice
Published 16 December 2014