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This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/e-scooter-trials-guidance-for-local-areas-and-rental-operators/e-scooter-trials-guidance-for-local-areas-and-rental-operators
To support a ‘green’ restart of local travel and help mitigate reduced public transport capacity, in July 2020, the Department for Transport (DfT) made regulations allowing trials of rental e-scooters to be fast tracked and expanded.
This guidance is intended to inform local authorities and e-scooter operators about trial requirements.
The trials are now live in 31 regions across England. A comprehensive monitoring and evaluation programme is also underway to assess the safety of e-scooters and their wider impacts.
All trial proposals need to come from local authorities. The deadline for local authorities to express an interest in taking part in the trials was 31 August 2020. E-scooter operators can take part in the trials only through a local authority procurement exercise and with necessary permissions from DfT.
The original deadline for the end of the trials was 30 November 2021, but trials were extended until 31 March 2022 to take into account the slower start to trials as a result of the pandemic. Trials were further extended to 30 November 2022 in October 2021.
Extending the trials will allow us to continue to fill data gaps, make the necessary changes to ensure the trials are as safe and well run as possible and establish best practice for shared micromobility services.
The general principle will be of trial continuation rather than expansion of trials or market development.
Only local authorities participating in the current trials will be eligible to participate in the trial extension to 30 November 2022.
Requests for changes to trials
The extension process will not be an opportunity to increase the scope of the trials by allowing new areas to participate or by increasing the number of e-scooters. Trials should continue in their current form where this is possible. We will keep this under review throughout the extension.
Where local authorities, by exception, need to make a change to their fleet size or the geography of their trial (for legal or essential operational or safety reasons), these requests will be considered on a case by case basis using the existing change request process. The final decision on request changes will be made by DfT’s E-scooter Project Board. Requests for changes to trials will be considered only if they are made by local authorities.
Requests to use new e-scooter models in trial areas will be dealt with by opening a vehicle approvals assessment window. The last window was open from 24 January 2022 to 18 February 2022.
Regulatory changes to allow trials
For trials to take place, we amended existing regulations. In doing so, we proposed to regulate rental e-scooter trials as similarly as possible to electrically assisted pedal cycles (EAPCs). In many ways, e-scooters have a similar road presence to EAPCs and cycles – they are similarly sized with similar visibility for other road users.
Responses received from the Future of transport regulatory review: call for evidence generally supported treating e-scooters like cycles and EAPCs.
During trials, however, e-scooters continue to be classed as motor vehicles, meaning requirements to have insurance and the correct type of driving licence continue to apply.
We have made the following regulatory changes to enable e-scooter trials.
Vehicle design: current position
An e-scooter continues to fall within the statutory definition of a motor vehicle. We have defined the sub-category of an e-scooter as being a motor vehicle that:
- is fitted with no motor other than an electric motor with a maximum continuous power rating of 500W and is not fitted with pedals that are capable of propelling the vehicle
- is designed to carry no more than one person
- has a maximum speed not exceeding 15.5mph
- has 2 wheels, 1 front and 1 rear, aligned along the direction of travel
- has a mass including the battery, but excluding the rider, not exceeding 55kg
- has means of directional control via the use of handlebars that are mechanically linked to the steered wheel
- has means of controlling the speed via hand controls and a power control that defaults to the ‘off’ position
In addition, to achieve this, and in agreement with trial areas, we have issued vehicle orders under s44 and s63(5)–(7) of the Road Traffic Act 1988 for vehicles of particular operators assessed as being suitable to participate in trials – see Annex: Minimum technical requirements for e-scooters.
E-scooters that already meet vehicle construction and approval requirements can also be used in trials.
In this definition, after considering consultation responses, we decided to allow e-scooters to be used up to a maximum speed of 15.5mph. This matches the speed limit for EAPCs. Geo-fencing technology could allow for greater flexibility for lower speeds, where appropriate, across trial areas.
We also increased the permitted vehicle mass from 35kg to 55kg and removed from the original definition that an e-scooter should have ‘no provision for seating’ to allow seated variants to participate where they comply with our other requirements.
Finally, we introduced a maximum motor power – up from 350W to 500W.
Rules for e-scooter users
There are 2 requirements in primary legislation that will continue to apply to e-scooters:
E-scooters in trials need to be covered by a motor vehicle insurance policy. It is understood rental operators will ensure a policy is in place that covers users of the vehicles.
E-scooter users need to have a valid driving licence.
Anyone with a full or provisional driving licence can use a trial e-scooter (categories AM, A1, A2, A and B) by permitting those licence holders to ride category Q vehicles.
Users are not required to complete a mandatory training course (such as the compulsory basic training (CBT) course required for motorcycles and mopeds), but we recommend e-scooter providers offer training courses to users.
To achieve this, we have amended the various existing requirements in the Motor Vehicles (Driving Licences) Regulations 1999 that currently require users to hold a full category A, AM licence, a full category B licence pre-2001 or later full category B licence plus CBT certificate.
Local authorities should include provision of training in their agreement(s) with operators.
We recommend wearing a cycle helmet for e-scooter journeys, but do not propose that wearing helmets is mandatory. The government considered mandatory use of cycle helmets in detail as part of its Cycling and Walking Investment Strategy safety review in 2018.
We believe these considerations are broadly applicable to e-scooters with a similar speed limit to EAPCs and we continue to recommend usage of cycle helmets.
To achieve this, we amended the existing requirement in the Motor Cycles (Protective Helmets) Regulations 1998, removing the requirement for a motorcycle helmet to be worn, as it relates to e-scooters.
Local authorities may wish to include the provision of helmets or availability at the point of hire in their agreement(s) with operators.
E-scooter use on the road
We have allowed e-scooters to use the same road space as cycles and EAPCs. This means e-scooters are allowed on the road (except motorways) and in cycle lanes and tracks where possible.
The controls over where e-scooters can be used are split between central government and local authorities. We have made the necessary regulatory changes to allow e-scooters to be used in cycle lanes. But, to have full effect, local authorities hosting trials need to ensure that their traffic regulation orders (TROs) – either temporary, experimental or permanent – are updated and allow e-scooter use.
Cycle lanes: regulatory changes by DfT
We have made amendments to the Traffic Signs Regulations and General Directions 2016 (that apply to England only) to include e-scooters within the definition of vehicles permitted to use cycle lanes.
We have amended the definition of cycle lane to read ‘part of a carriageway of a road reserved for pedal cycles and/or electric scooters that is separated from the rest of the carriageway—’ or similar. This will permit e-scooters to be used in cycle lanes. It also means that the cycle symbol on signs will apply to e-scooters.
Cycle lanes: actions required by local authorities
Following the regulatory change, local authorities hosting trials need to amend their TROs that apply to cycle lanes. These should reflect the change in regulations that the cycle lane is for use by pedal cycles or e-scooters.
Cycle tracks: regulatory changes by DfT
The definition of cycle track is contained in primary legislation so we cannot amend this for trials.
Cycle tracks: actions required by local authorities
Local authorities can designate road space as either cycle lanes or cycle tracks. To enable e-scooter use, cycle tracks would need to be redesignated as cycle lanes. This then allows the process above to be used for cycle tracks. We are aware that some cycle tracks were made under the Cycle Tracks Act 1984.
TROs can be amended through the experimental, temporary and permanent TRO processes. Local authorities should take advice from their legal teams to ensure that the correct orders are in place for trials in their areas.
Other regulations that apply to e-scooters
There are other regulations that apply to e-scooters that we do not consider relevant to running trials. Therefore, we have exempted trial e-scooters from vehicle registration and licensing (vehicle excise duty). To achieve this, we have amended the Road Vehicles (Registration and Licensing) Regulations 2002.
We have also exempted trial e-scooters from the requirements for vehicle type approval. To achieve this, we have exempted e-scooters from the type approval requirements in the Road Traffic Act 1988.
Non-regulatory e-scooter trial controls
In addition to the regulatory provisions above, local authorities may wish to specify their own additional requirements for trials, such as:
- the number of e-scooters to be provided in trials – DfT must authorise operator vehicles being used in trial areas, but the total number of vehicles should be agreed by local authorities and demand can be met gradually based on usage data
- the availability of training or helmets, which could be included in their agreements
- the specific areas where trial e-scooters can be parked – for trials to be effective, there will need to be sufficient parking provision in trial areas and where a dockless operating model is being used, local authorities should ensure that e-scooters do not become obstructive to other road users and pedestrians, particularly those with disabilities
- the use of geo-fencing, either to limit the trial area within a local authority or to prevent e-scooters being used in other local authorities not participating in trials, except with their agreement – this could also include ensuring e-scooters serve particular areas or address specific local transport needs
- the sharing of data between the local authority and e-scooter operator, in addition to the required data-sharing between operators and DfT
It should be noted that these arrangements are for the duration of the trial period only. The ongoing legal and regulatory basis for e-scooters will be considered by DfT based on findings from the trials.
DfT considers that the option to set out local requirements and controls within appropriate contractual arrangements, together with the time-limited nature of trials and likelihood of well aligned incentives on all sides, should reassure participants.
As set out above, DfT, in agreement with trial areas, has issued vehicle orders under s44 and s63(5) of the Road Traffic Act 1988 for vehicles and operators assessed as being suitable to participate in trials. DfT, however, retains its legal ability to revoke the administrative orders that allow e-scooter vehicles to operate where e-scooter use is not in accordance with regulations, agreements with local authorities or the effective conduct of the trial.
DfT trial requirements
All local authorities in England, Scotland and Wales could have considered participating in e-scooter rental trials, however, the final decision on which trials took place sat with DfT. All trial proposals have been assessed.
All local authorities were asked to submit a consolidated bid that demonstrated their proposed trial could meet DfT’s requirements. These consolidated bids needed to show that:
- relevant local high-level objectives and requirements had been established
- a high-quality service would be provided that should meet these requirements and objectives
- trials could conceivably commence between June and the end of August 2020 (later extended to 31 March 2021) and could run for 12 months
- proposals were feasible and deliverable
- the trial area would provide useful evidence and insights
- licence details of users would be captured by operators
- operators had appropriate insurance in place – motor insurance requirements apply to e-scooter operators, therefore a minimum of third-party cover was required by operators (though not a legal requirement, they may have also considered insuring against vehicle theft/damage and including personal insurance too – to all users or on an optional basis)
- impacts for people with disabilities had been considered and addressed
- arrangements were in place between operators and DfT for central data access for third-party evaluation
- TROs for cycle lanes and cycle tracks were updated, where required, to allow e-scooter use
- any new signing, road markings and public information (such as areas where e-scooters are prohibited or parking areas) would be implemented
- enforcement issues had been considered with relevant authorities and vehicles could be made visible and distinct from privately owned e-scooters
- safety issues had been appropriately considered and addressed, including ensuring:
- appropriate levels of vehicle servicing/maintenance and vehicle hygiene arrangements
- vehicles deployed would meet prescribed vehicle standards (see 3.1 Vehicle design: current position and 8. Annex: Minimum technical requirements for e-scooters)
- appropriate training of some sort would be offered to users
- wearing of protective headgear would be encouraged
- operators would use automatic vehicle lights where possible
For proposals to be successful, agreement was needed across all relevant levels of local authorities. For example, proposals would need to demonstrate support and buy-in across relevant local highway authorities, boroughs and city councils, with overarching support from combined authorities where they were in place.
Where trial areas included and involved several tiers of local government, DfT recommended agreeing a lead authority. In most cases, it was expected that the lead authority would have strategic oversight across all local trial areas.
Additional trial requirements from 1 April 2022
The main objective of the trials will continue to be an assessment of the safety and wider impacts of e-scooters and development of best practice for shared micromobility services. However, we consider that some changes are necessary to ensure the trials are as safe and well run as possible.
The additional requirements apply only to those local authorities and e-scooter operators taking part in the trial extension to 30 November 2022.
Enhancing existing safety measures and improving public perceptions
Improving general safety
Local authorities and operators should review current safety measures and consider improvements including:
- lower speed limits for new riders
- parking incentives and penalties
- improved geofencing (including reducing the complexity of geofencing for users)
- e-scooter safety events
- further use of technology to improve safety, noting that any technology that alters the vehicle will need to go through our change request process
- publicity initiatives
Local authorities and operators should also consider how to increase and improve the public’s perception of e-scooter safety.
To increase the uptake and encourage further use of e-scooters all operators should provide a minimum mandatory level of training for all new users and additional, incentivised offers of more in depth rider training.
The level of training should be agreed between local authorities and operators. This could include in-person training sessions and better information provision and incentives for users to engage with it.
Encouraging helmet use
Although not mandated, there are currently large variations in rates of helmet wearing between areas. Evidence suggests providing an optional helmet with the e-scooter is an effective measure to encourage use, but we know there are issues with shared helmets. All operators should consider providing helmets, and introducing incentives for riders to use them, or encouraging riders to use their own helmets.
Reducing illegal use of e-scooters and antisocial behavior
At a national level, we will continue to work with stakeholders, including retailers and the police, to tackle illegal use. However, we know it is difficult for the police and the public to distinguish between private (illegal) e-scooters and those being used in rental trials. This, in turn, has an impact on the monitoring and evaluation programme, making it difficult to determine, for example, whether pavement riding is more common for private (illegal) use.
To help address these issues we want further requirements to be introduced to improve user identification and reduce the illegal use of e-scooters.
Unique identification numbers
Section 13 of the vehicle special order (VSO) requires that each e-scooter displays a manufacturer’s label that includes a unique identification number (UIN).
To help identify riders, and to assist the police and the public in differentiating between trial e-scooters and privately owned e-scooters, we recommend that this UIN (or a different UIN) takes the form of a plate, stickers or paint. It should be placed where it is clearly visible – for example, on the steering column and/or at the side or rear of the vehicle.
Provision of user data to the police
Operators must confirm to DfT what information, to identify users, they will provide to the police if requested. This should, as a minimum standard, include the name and driving licence details of the driver (and any other information relating to the identity of the driver).
Taking action to reduce the illegal use of e-scooters
At a local level, operators and local authorities should consider what action could be taken to reduce illegal use.
Consideration must be given to reducing illegal use in rental schemes, such as twin riding, pavement riding and parents unlocking e-scooters for children. Issues around illegal use could be dealt with by improving training and communication. E-scooter user accounts could also be suspended or deleted where necessary and a ‘3 strikes’ rule could be introduced.
Methods to tackle illegal use outside of the trials should also be considered as this has a negative impact on the perception of trials. These measures could include closer working with the local police and local trading standards, and/or local publicity campaigns.
Improving parking bays
All marked parking bays in trial areas should be marked in accordance with DfT requirements as soon as possible. Locally designed parking bays do not meet legal requirements.
Continuing with monitoring and evaluation
Local authorities should continue to complete monthly situation reports to ensure the safe conduct of the trials. Operators must share sufficient data with local authorities to allow them to comply with this requirement.
Eligibility requirements for trial extensions
Only local authorities participating in the current trials will be eligible to participate in the trial extension to 30 November 2022.
Regulations and the trial extension
The extension is covered by the current regulations that authorise the trials. New vehicle requirements will not need new or amended regulations.
During the trial extension, e-scooters will continue to be classed as motor vehicles, meaning requirements to have insurance and the correct type of driving licence will continue to apply.
Privately owned e-scooters will continue to be illegal unless they meet the requirements that otherwise apply to motor vehicles.
Monitoring, evaluation and DfT data requirements
Although local authorities are able to commission their own research, DfT has contracted and managed central monitoring and evaluation by third parties across all trials. This will include case studies within selected areas and a deep dive into local effects.
We ask that local authorities notify DfT of an intention to conduct local research or evaluation, so that we can support where desired, but also to discuss with you any crossover points: to avoid research participants being contacted multiple times, leading to fatigue and unreliable results.
DfT is committed to ensuring the accessibility of online forms and surveys and meeting the WCAG 2.1 AA standard. To make sure everyone can participate in the e-scooter research, online surveys will have a supplementary telephone service.
We are identifying accessibility issues and we are working to make future surveys of this kind meet the WCAG 2.1 AA standard.
How we will evaluate the trials
The primary aim of the evaluation is to build robust evidence about the safety, benefits, public perceptions and wider impacts of e-scooters to inform legal changes that may be necessary after the trial period ends.
The secondary aim is to understand how the local transport systems are working, what factors support or hinder this, and learn lessons for future rollout.
The information we gather includes:
- safety outcomes for e-scooter users and what influences this
- interaction with, and effect on, other road users
- public perceptions of e-scooters, including people with disabilities and related groups
- nature of modal shift and new journeys that have been enabled
- details of trips made – how far, routes, speed
- characteristics of users and how uptake and outcomes differ for different groups
- local authority perception of effects on their transport system
- lessons for future rollout
- what a future regulatory system for the future should include, such as speed, vehicle standards or licensing
- any other unexpected outcomes
- overall costs and benefits to society
To answer these questions, we and our monitoring and evaluation (M&E) contractors require access to operator data sets, including personal data in some cases.
Data access and protection
DfT has agreed access to these data sets directly with trial operators – local authorities may require similar data and should agree on access separately as part of their procurement processes. Alternatively, DfT is able to agree local authorities access to the data that we collect centrally.
We are committed to working with partners to ensure a proportionate approach to data gathering and have ensured that relevant data protection processes (including opt-out, where relevant) are in place before any personal data collection begins.
Given our personal data access requirements, DfT has drafted a data protection impact assessment (DPIA) to ensure compliance with data protection obligations and meet individuals’ expectations of privacy.
Annex: Minimum technical requirements for e-scooters
The technical provisions for e-scooters have been written into vehicle special orders that enable operators of e-scooters to participate in trials. To be approved for vehicle special orders, operators have demonstrated that their vehicles meet the following technical requirements.
Summary of technical requirements required from operators
|Section||Description of requirements|
|General safety||All aspects of the design and construction of the vehicle that are not covered by other items shall be such that no danger is caused or likely to be caused to any person using the vehicle or other road users.|
|Anti-tampering||Measures shall be taken to prevent tampering of:
– maximum speed
|Audible warning||Each vehicle shall be fitted with a bell or horn suitable for giving audible warning of the approach or position of the vehicle.|
|Braking||Each vehicle should be fitted with 2 independent braking systems, each of which is capable of bringing the vehicle safely to a halt.
Combined braking systems are allowed provided:
– a failure in one system does not affect the performance of the other
– each system meets the given brake performance requirements below
At least one brake must be hand-operated. If a kinetic energy recovery system is counted as one braking system, then the second braking system shall be a friction brake.
The braking systems shall meet the following requirements on a dry and level surface and when fully laden:
1. When all braking systems are used in combination, a minimum deceleration rate of 3.5m/s2 or max stopping distance ≤7m from a speed of 15.5mph.
2. Each braking system shall independently be able to achieve a minimum deceleration 1.5m/s2 or max stopping distance ≤15m from a speed of 15.5mph.
If a mudguard brake is used, the following conditions shall be met:
1. It shall be constructed of materials that limit wear of wheel and mudguard.
2. It shall be possible to actuate the foot brake over its full travel without interference.
3. Mudguard brake shall have a non-slip surface. The braking force shall be progressive and graduated.
Where the e-scooter is fitted with brakes which are intended to be hand-operated:
1. The brake lever intended to be operated by the right hand must operate the front brake.
2. The brake lever intended to be operated by the left hand must operate the rear brake.
– A single lever operating both braking systems shall be permitted to be operated by either hand.
Means to operate brakes must be exclusive for braking.
Every part of every braking system and the means of operation shall be maintained in good and efficient working order and be properly adjusted.
|Mass and dimensions of e-scooters||Minimum payload capacity: 100kg
Maximum mass without rider: 55kg
Maximum length: 1.5m
Maximum width: 0.7m
Maximum height: 1.5m
|Electrical safety||The vehicle and its components of the electrical system including the battery shall be so designed, constructed and fitted as to:
– minimise and protect against the risk of electrolyte leakage, fire, explosion and electric shock
– ensure electromagnetic compatibility
|Lighting and reflectors||Obligatory lamps:
1. The vehicle shall be fitted with a front position lamp meeting the following requirements:
– colour: white
– visibility: easily visible for other road users from a reasonable distance, but not to dazzle oncoming road users
2. The vehicle shall be fitted with a rear position lamp meeting the following requirements:
– colour: red
– alignment: at or near the rear
– visibility: easily visible for other road users from a reasonable distance, but not to dazzle oncoming road users
3. Flashing lamps are permitted with a flashing frequency of 1Hz to 4Hz (60 to 240 times per minute).
1. The vehicle may be fitted with direction indicators. If fitted, the colour of the direction indicators shall be amber.
2. The vehicle may be fitted with a stop lamp. If fitted, the stop lamp shall meet the following requirements:
– colour: red
– alignment: to the rear
Obligatory retro reflectors:
1. The vehicle shall be fitted with a red reflector to the rear.
2. The vehicle shall be fitted with reflectors that are capable of reflecting light to each side of the vehicle and shall be of colour either amber or white.
3. Reflective materials (such as reflective tapes) shall be allowed.
Optional retro reflectors:
1. The vehicle may be fitted with a reflector to the front. If fitted, the colour of the reflector shall be white;
2. Reflective materials (such as reflective tapes) shall be allowed.
1. No person shall use/permit to be used on a road any light to cause undue dazzle or discomfort to other persons using the road.
2. Obligatory lamps are required to be kept lit and unobscured when the vehicle is:
– used between sunset and sunrise, or in seriously reduced visibility between sunrise and sunset
– allowed to remain at rest on a road between sunset and sunrise
3. Lamps and reflectors must be clean and maintained in good working order.
|Manufacturer’s label||A tamper-resistant, weatherproof label shall be firmly affixed, legible and located in a conspicuous place displaying:
– manufacturer name
– model identifier
– unique identification number
– maximum payload
– maximum speed
– maximum continuous rated power
The unique identification number may be located on a separate label positioned elsewhere on the vehicle.
If removed, a new label shall be put in its place.
|Stands||The vehicle must be fitted with a stand that can support the e-scooter when left unattended.
The stand – once retracted – shall remain in the retracted position while driving so as not to disturb the vehicle while in motion.
|Towing||Towing is prohibited.
The use of side-cars is prohibited.
|Tyres||Tyres may be of either pneumatic or non-pneumatic construction. The tyre shall be suitable having regard to the use to which the e-scooter is being put.
Any pneumatic tyre shall be so inflated as to make it fit for the use to which the vehicle is being put.
The tyre shall:
– be maintained in such condition as to be fit for the use to which the vehicle is being put
– not have any defect which might in any way cause damage to the surface of the road, rider or other persons using the road
|Stability||The vehicle shall be so designed and constructed as to pass the stability tests outlined in 8.2.|
In the following stability tests, the vehicle is to be operated on the carriageway elements at 20km/h (or at the maximum design speed if this is lower) and at a speed of 8±2km/h.
The carriageway elements in tests 1 and 2 (in both cases only on the up ramp) and 4 (where the front wheel in the direction of travel is in direct contact with the up ramp/kerb) are in both cases to be approached from a standstill.
In each test, the vehicle must be ridden over the complete carriageway elements and the rider must be able to control it at all times. The direction of travel in which the rider wishes to head must be retained, with a maximum deviation between the target and actual trajectory of 20 degrees being permissible.
The tests are to be performed on a dry, level, non-slip concrete or asphalt surface.
The longitudinal gradient of the test track shall not exceed 1% and its transverse gradient shall not exceed 3%.
The ambient temperature must be between 0°C and 45°C, and wind conditions shall be such that they do not affect the testing.
The battery state of charge shall be at least 75%.
In the case of pneumatic tyres, the pressure shall be set in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
The mass of the vehicle shall be equivalent to its ‘ready-to-ride’ state and the tests are to be performed with a rider of mass between 70kg and 100kg.
Test 1 – Depression
Structure of the carriageway element: a depression in relation to the riding level measuring at least 100cm long x 100cm wide x 5cm high with vertical walls and an exit ramp at an angle of 45 degrees.
The vehicle to be tested is to be ridden through the depression in a straight line over the kerb towards the ramp parallel to the direction of travel shown.
Test 2 – Up and down ramps
Structure of the carriageway element: a down and up ramp with a height difference of 2cm in relation to the riding level (size 100cm long x 100cm wide).
The vehicle to be tested is to be ridden through the depression in a straight line over the kerb towards the up ramp parallel to the direction of travel shown.
Test 3 – Drop on one side
Structure of the carriageway element: a stretch on which the riding level, over a length of 100cm, drops by 10cm on the left-hand side in the direction of travel or rises by 10cm on the right-hand side in the direction of travel (drop or rise on one side).
The vehicle to be tested is to be ridden up and down on the stretch with a drop on one side parallel to the direction of travel shown. The vehicle must not be ridden over the edge of the carriageway element with a height of 10cm.
Test 4 – Kerb
Structure of the carriageway element: a kerb with a rounded profile, as shown in the figure below, and a height difference between the carriageway level and the upper edge of the kerb of 3cm.
The vehicle to be tested is to be ridden up over the kerb at an angle of 90 degrees and an angle of 45 degrees.