This was published under the 2010 to 2015 Conservative and Liberal Democrat coalition government
To mark Black History Month we will be profiling members of the UK Armed Forces from countries across the world on the ‘We Were There’ Tumblr page.
The largest contingent of military forces outside of the UK came from India. The Indian Army started life in the 17th century when the East India Company recruited local personnel to guard its interests, although formed units were not organised until the mid-18th century. It recruited throughout the sub-continent, mainly in the south and coastal regions where the earliest European interests were located.
Gradually, it expanded its recruitment base to include Gurkhas from Nepal (which was never actually part of the British Empire) from 1815 and later men from the Punjab and other parts of northern India. Not all service was in the home country; between 1860 and 1914, for example, Indian regiments served in China (1860), Abyssinia (1868) and Somaliland (1903).
Recruitment took place throughout the Empire, including China, East and West Africa, and the West Indies. Most recruits enlisted into local defence forces, although a few, such as the West India Regiment, existed for overseas service.
The Royal Navy has long been an ethnically diverse force. Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, as Britain’s empire grew to cover a quarter of the globe, the Navy employed men from all over the world.
Until 1853, recruitment was the responsibility of the captains of individual ships. The Navy relied heavily on the Merchant Navy, which employed mixed race crews, for its manpower. At the Battle of Trafalgar, HMS Victory carried 71 men of foreign nationality.