Guidance

Waste exemptions: treating waste

Read through the list of exemptions covering treating waste to find the one that could apply to your waste operation.

T1: cleaning, washing, spraying or coating relevant waste

This exemption allows you to treat waste packaging so that it can be reused in its original form. You can also clean suitable waste to allow it to be recycled.

Types of activity you can carry out

These include:

  • washing waste plastic drums so that they can be reused or sold for reuse
  • cleaning waste plastic or glass to allow it to be recycled

Types of activity you can’t carry out

You can’t:

Types of waste you can treat

The waste codes are those listed in the List of Wastes (LoW) Regulations. You need to make sure your waste fits within the relevant waste code and description.

Waste code Type of waste
150105 Composite packaging
150107, 160120, 170202, 191205, 200102 Glass
150101 Paper and cardboard packaging
020104, 070213, 150102, 160119, 170203, 200139 Plastic, including plastic packaging from agriculture
150109 Textile packaging

Amount of waste you can treat or store

You can:

  • treat up to 300 tonnes of waste over any seven-day period
  • store up to 300 tonnes of waste at any one time
  • store waste for up to three months before it is treated

Where containers have stored a dangerous substance:

  • one tonne of waste is the maximum amount you can store over any seven-day period
  • the waste must not be contaminated by more than 1% of its original volume before it is treated

You must:

  • store and treat waste in a location with sealed drainage
  • have the correct consent before you discharge dirty water from washing waste to surface water, groundwater or sewer

You can find out more at How to comply with your environmental permit - additional guidance for water discharge and groundwater.

For consent to discharge to a sewer you need to contact your local water company.

Related exemptions

To bale or shred suitable waste after cleaning you must register an exemption.

You need to register this exemption with the Environment Agency if you meet the requirements:

Apply for an environmental permit

Register a T1 exemption

You need to register this exemption with the Environment Agency if you will meet the requirements:

Apply for an environmental permit

If you are coating packaging you should contact your local authority to find out if you need an environmental permit under Part B of Section 6.4 (Coating activities and printing) of Part 2 of Schedule 1 of the Environmental Permitting (England and Wales) Regulations 2010.

Definitions

Dangerous substance – see regulation 2(1) of the Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations 2009.

Discharge consent – a consent issued under Chapter II of Part 3 of the Water Resources Act 1991 or regulation 13 of the Environmental Permitting (England and Wales) Regulations 2010.

Hazardous waste – see How to classify different types of waste.

Sealed drainage – a drainage system with an impermeable surface that ensures:

  • no liquid will run off the surface apart from via the system
  • all liquids entering the system are collected in a sealed sump except where they may be lawfully discharged

T2: recovering textiles

This exemption allows you to clean waste clothes and textiles to recover them so they can be reused or recycled.

Types of activity you can carry out

These include:

  • laundering or cleaning waste clothes to recover them so they can be reused
  • laundering or cleaning waste textiles so they can be used to make carpet underlay under another exempt waste operation

You can’t:

  • shred or bale any of the types of waste under this exemption (see related exemptions)
  • clean textiles that aren’t going to be recovered or reused
  • treat hazardous waste

Types of waste you can treat

The waste codes are listed in the List of Wastes (LoW) Regulations. You need to make sure your waste fits within the relevant waste code and description.

Waste code Type of waste
191208 Textiles
200110 Clothes
200111 Textiles

Amount of waste you can treat

You can store or treat up to 20,000 tonnes of waste at any one time.

Key conditions

The waste must be stored and treated in a location with sealed drainage.

Other things you need to know

You must not discharge dirty water from laundering to surface water, groundwater or sewers without the correct consent.

You can find out more at How to comply with your environmental permit - additional guidance for water discharge and groundwater.

To discharge dirty water to sewer you need consent from your local water company.

Related exemptions

If you want to bale waste textiles, you should consider:

T4 - preparatory treatments (baling, sorting, shredding etc)

If you want to make finished goods from waste textiles you should consider:

U9 - use of waste to manufacture of finished goods

Registering a T2 exemption

You need to register this exemption with us if you meet the requirements:

Apply for an environmental permit

Definitions

Discharge consent – a consent issued under Chapter II of Part 3 of the Water Resources Act 1991 or Regulation of the Environmental Permitting (England and Wales) Regulations 2010.

Hazardous waste – see How to classify different types of waste.

Sealed drainage – a drainage system with an impermeable surface that ensures:

  • no liquid will run off the surface apart from via the system
  • all liquids entering the system are collected in a sealed sump except where they may be lawfully discharged

T4: preparatory treatments (baling, sorting, shredding etc)

This exemption allows you to treat waste to reduce its volume to help transport it to another site for reuse or recycling or make handling easier.

Types of activity you can carry out

These include:

  • baling loose paper and cardboard before transporting it to another site for recycling
  • baling and shredding aluminium cans
  • sorting different types of plastic bottles

You can’t:

  • use heat to densify the waste
  • combine the storage limits of this exemption and S2 (Storage of waste in a secure place) to increase the overall storage capacity (this exemption has storage limits for each type of waste so you don’t have to register two separate exemptions)
  • mix types of waste for treatment or storage
  • treat hazardous waste
  • bale waste before it is sent to landfill or incineration

Types of waste you can treat

The waste codes are those listed in the List of Wastes (LoW) Regulations. Make sure your waste fits within the relevant waste code and description.

Waste code Type of waste
150104, 200140 Cans and foils only
070213, 150102, 150105 Food and drink cartons only
150107, 160120, 170202, 191205, 200102 Glass
030308, 030307, 150101, 191201, 200101 Paper and cardboard (excluding food and drink cartons)
020104, 070213, 120105, 150102, 160119, 170203, 191204, 200139 Plastic
040222, 150109, 191208, 200110, 200111 Textiles and clothes

Amount of waste you can treat and store

Where the treatment involves pulverising waste you can treat up to five tonnes in any seven-day period and the pulverising must take place indoors.

You can store waste for up to 12 months.

Cans and foils

You can:

  • treat up to 100 tonnes outside in any seven-day period
  • treat up to 500 tonnes indoors in any seven-day period
  • store up to 500 tonnes at any one time

Food and drink cartons and plastics

You can:

  • treat up to 100 tonnes outside in any seven-day period
  • treat up to 3,000 tonnes indoors in any seven-day period
  • store up to 500 tonnes at any one time

Glass

You can:

  • treat up to 5,000 tonnes in any seven-day period
  • store up to 5,000 tonnes at any one time

Textiles

You can:

  • treat up to 1,000 tonnes outside in any seven-day period
  • treat up to 3,000 tonnes indoors in any seven-day period
  • store up to 1,000 tonnes at any one time

Paper and cardboard

You can:

  • treat up to 500 tonnes outside in any seven-day period
  • treat up to 3,000 tonnes indoors in any seven-day period
  • store up to 15,000 tonnes at any one time (up to 1,000 tonnes outside in an enclosure designed and maintained to prevent litter escaping)

The waste can only be stored:

  • in a baled form
  • in a container or indoors

Key conditions

Different types of waste have to arrive separately and be kept apart throughout the treatment.

The waste must be stored and treated in a secure place.

You do not need to register this exemption if you only want to bale waste at the place where it is produced. This is accepted as ancillary treatment before the collection of waste.

Related exemptions

If you only want to store these types of waste but not treat them, you could register:

S2 - storage of waste in a secure place

There is another exemption which allows small-scale sorting of mixed recyclable wastes. You could consider:

T10 - sorting mixed wastes

Register a T4 exemption

You need to register this exemption with the Environment Agency if you meet the requirements:

Apply for an environmental permit

If you want to treat more than the amount of waste allowed under this exemption, you must apply for an environmental permit.

Definitions

Hazardous waste – see How to classify different types of waste.

Place of production – the place where waste was originally produced.

Secure – a container, lagoon or other place is secure if:

  • all reasonable precautions are taken to make sure the waste cannot escape
  • members of the public cannot gain access to the waste

T5: screening and blending waste

This exemption allows you to temporarily treat waste on a small scale to produce aggregate or soil at a place such as a construction or demolition site.

Types of activity you can carry out

These include:

  • screening soil on a demolition site to remove wood and rubble before sending the soil to a construction site to be reused
  • blending soil and compost that has been produced under an exemption on a construction site to produce better soil for landscaping on that site
  • crushing waste (except bricks, tiles and concrete) before screening or blending
  • grading waste concrete after it has been crushed to produce a certain type of aggregate

You can’t:

  • import waste, treat it and then export it somewhere else (this applies even if the treated aggregate would meet the Quality Protocol standard and will no longer be considered waste)
  • treat waste where the main purpose is to dispose of it to landfill or incinerate it
  • crush waste tiles, bricks or concrete (see related exemptions)
  • treat hazardous waste

Types of waste you can treat

The waste codes are those listed in the List of Wastes (LoW) Regulations. You need to make sure your waste fits within the relevant waste code and description.

Waste code Type of waste
010408 Waste gravel and crushed rocks not containing dangerous substances
010409 Waste sand and clay
020202 Shellfish shells from which the soft tissue or flesh have been removed only
030101 Untreated waste bark and cork only
030301 Untreated waste bark and wood
100101 Bottom ash, slag and boiler dust (excluding boiler dust containing oil fly ash and dust)
100115 Bottom ash, slag and boiler dust from co-incineration not containing dangerous substances
170101 Concrete
170102 Bricks
170103 Tiles and ceramics
170107 Mixtures of concrete, bricks, tiles and ceramics not containing dangerous substances
170201 Untreated wood only
170302 Bituminous mixtures not containing dangerous substances
170504 Soil and stones not containing dangerous substances
170506 Dredging spoil not containing dangerous substances
170508 Track ballast not containing dangerous substances
190599 Compost produced only by aerobic composting under the T23 exemption or standard rules permit SR2011 no.1 specifically, or by treating kitchen waste in a wormery under T26 exemption.
191205 Glass
191209 Aggregates only
191212 Gypsum recovered from construction materials only
191302 Solid waste from soil remediation not containing dangerous substances
191304 Sludge from remediation not containing dangerous substances
200202 Soil and stones

The amount of waste you can treat

You can store or treat:

  • up to 50,000 tonnes of bituminous mixtures for making roadstone
  • up to 5,000 tonnes of other waste under this exemption

over a three-year period from the date of registering the exemption.

You can’t store waste for more than 12 months.

Key conditions

You can only treat waste at the place where it is to be used or where the waste was produced.

When you have treated the waste there are two options available:

  • if the treated waste meets the requirements of a Waste Quality Protocol, it will no longer be considered waste
  • use the treated waste under an exemption or permit when it has not met the requirements of a Waste Quality Protocol

Related exemptions

These are related exemptions where you can use or treat waste:

  • T7 - treating waste bricks, tiles and concrete by crushing, grinding or reducing size (You need to register this with your local authority)
  • U1 - use of waste in construction

Register a T5 exemption

You need to register this exemption with the Environment Agency if you meet the requirements.

If you want to treat more than the amount of waste allowed under this exemption, you need to apply for an environmental permit.

If you want to import waste, treat it and export it elsewhere, you will need a site-based environmental permit.

If you want to crush bricks, tiles or concrete only, in amounts greater than the T7 exemption, you may need a Part B authorisation. Contact your local authority for more information.

Definitions

Hazardous waste – see How to classify different types of waste.

T6: treating waste wood and waste plant matter by chipping, shredding, cutting or pulverising

This exemption allows you to chip, shred, cut or pulverise waste wood and waste plant matter to make it easier to store and transport, or to convert it into a suitable form to use.

The waste treated by these methods must be suitable for its intended use, which can include feedstock for producing products such as panel board, mulch, surfacing tracks (paths and bridleways) or fuel.

Types of activity you can carry out

These include:

  • chipping untreated waste wood to use as fuel in a boiler to provide heat
  • cutting waste wood into a suitable size to manufacture chipboard
  • shredding waste plant matter before moving it to an authorised facility for composting

You can’t:

  • sort out waste wood or waste plant tissue from other types of waste as this exemption only allows wood and plant tissue waste
  • treat waste where the main purpose is to dispose of it to landfill or incinerate it
  • compost, burn or manufacture products from waste wood (see related exemptions)
  • treat wood that is hazardous waste

Types of waste you can treat

The waste codes are listed in the List of Wastes (LoW) Regulations. You need to make sure your waste fits within the relevant waste code and description.

Waste code Type of waste
020103, 200201 Plant tissue waste
030101, 030301, 170201 Wood
150103 Wooden packaging only

You can’t treat wood that has been sorted from mixed sources at a waste treatment facility.

Amount of waste you can treat

You can treat or store up to 500 tonnes of waste over any seven-day period.

You can store waste for up to three months after treatment.

Other things you need to know

If:

  • you have registered one of the following exemptions, and intend to chip or shred the waste before it is treated at the same place, you do not need to register this exemption:

T23 - aerobic composting and associated prior treatment

T24 - anaerobic digestion at premises used for agriculture and burning of resultant biogas

T25 - anaerobic digestion at premises not used for agriculture and burning biogas produced

  • you are chipping treated or coated wood, you must not use this for construction, burning as fuel, mulch, animal bedding or as feedstock for composting. The only suitable use for treated or coated wood is the U9 exemption for manufacturing finished goods

  • the T6 exemption has been modified to allow processing of non hazardous ‘treated’ wood but only from the specific sources (listed above). You can’t process wood that has been sorted from mixed sources at a waste treatment facility

Related exemptions

You can use chipped or shredded untreated waste wood under a number of exemptions:

Register a T6 exemption

You need to register this exemption with the Environment Agency if you meet the requirements:

Apply for an environmental permit

If you want to treat more than the amount of waste allowed under this exemption, you must apply for an environmental permit.

Definitions

Hazardous waste – see How to classify different types of waste.

Untreated wood – wood that has not been treated with oils, tar oil preservatives, waterborne preservatives, organic based preservatives, boron and organo-metallic based preservatives, boron and halogenated flame retardants and surface treatments.

T8: mechanically treating end-of-life tyres

This exemption allows you to treat small amounts of waste end-of-life tyres by baling, shredding, peeling, shaving or granulating so they can be recovered.

Types of activity you can carry out

These include:

  • baling end-of-life tyres to use in construction
  • granulating end-of-life tyres to use in horse manége
  • re-treading end-of-life tyres so they can be reused as tyres
  • granulating end-of-life tyres again where the granulate is too big or needs further processing to comply with PAS 107

You can’t:

  • treat any other types of waste other than end-of-life tyres or shredded/granulated end-of-life tyres
  • treat hazardous waste
  • sort tyres under this exemption (we have adopted a Low Risk position LRW 414 when sorting tyres as an associated prior treatment when T8 is registered)

Types of waste you can treat

The waste codes are those listed in the List of Wastes (LoW) Regulations. You must make sure your waste fits within the relevant waste code and description.

Waste code Type of waste
160103 End-of-life tyres
191204 Shredded or granulated end-of-life tyres only

Amount of waste you can treat

You can store or treat:

  • 60 tonnes of truck tyres
  • 40 tonnes of any other tyres

over any seven-day period.

Key conditions

You can treat end-of-life tyres under this exemption, by:

  • granulating
  • baling
  • peeling
  • shaving
  • shredding
  • re-treading

You can treat shredded or granulated end-of-life tyres by:

  • granulating (you must do this indoors)

You can clean tyres and separate them from wheel rims before further treatment.

Within the seven-day limit, you must store the tyres in piles no bigger than 10 tonnes with a gap as a fire break between each pile.

Other things you need to know

There are two relevant Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) for end-of-life tyres:

There is a Waste Quality Protocol for the use of waste derived rubber materials produced under PAS 107 Waste Quality Protocols.

If you recover waste materials and sell them as products (recycled materials) rather than waste, you must comply with the REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) Regulations

You can use end-of-life tyres that have been baled to PAS 108 standard under U2 – Using baled end-of-life tyres in construction.

You can use granulated end-of-life tyres in horse manége under U8 – Using waste for a specified purpose.

Where it is appropriate, you can use treated end-of-life tyres under U9 – Using waste to manufacture finished goods.

Register a T8 exemption

You need to register this exemption with the Environment Agency if you will meet the requirements:

Apply for an environmental permit

If you want to treat more than the amount of waste allowed under this exemption, you must apply for an environmental permit.

Definitions

Hazardous waste – see How to classify different types of waste.

T9: recovering scrap metal

This exemption allows you to treat scrap metal by sorting, grading, shearing by manual feed, baling, crushing or cutting it with hand-held equipment to make it easier to handle and to help recover it.

Types of activity you can carry out

These include:

  • crushing and baling aluminium cans
  • crushing ferrous (containing iron) metal such as steel
  • shearing copper pipes by manual feed to make storage easier

You can’t:

  • receive, store or treat any end-of-life vehicles or components of end-of-life vehicles such as engine blocks, batteries or catalytic converters
  • treat hazardous waste
  • burn any waste

Types of waste you can treat

The waste codes are those listed in the List of Wastes (LoW) Regulations. You must make sure your waste fits within the relevant waste code and description.

Waste code Type of waste
020110 Waste metal
150104 Metallic packaging
160117, 191202 Ferrous metal
160118, 191203 Non ferrous metal
170401 Copper, bronze, brass
170402 Aluminium
170403 Lead
170404 Zinc
170405 Iron and steel
170406 Tin
170407 Mixed metals
170411 Cables not containing oil, coal tar or other dangerous substances
200140 Metals

Amount of waste you can treat

You can:

  • store or treat up to 1,000 tonnes at any one time
  • store or treat up to 50 tonnes of cables at any one time
  • store waste for up to 24 months
  • store any pile or stack of waste up to a maximum height of 5 metres

Key conditions

Treatments you can carry out:

  • sorting
  • grading
  • shearing by manual feed
  • baling
  • crushing
  • cutting it with hand-held equipment

The treatment must be carried out at a location with sealed drainage.

Other things you need to know

You must keep records of the quantity, nature, origin and, where relevant, the destination and treatment method of all waste recovered. You must retain these records for two years. During this time, you must make these records available to us if we ask for them.

If you want to use up to two depolluted end-of-life vehicles as parts for vehicles, you should register:

U16 - using depolluted end-of-life vehicles for vehicle parts

If you only want to store metal at a dock before it is exported or after it is imported to be recovered elsewhere, you should register:

S2 - storing waste in a secure place

You can use metal under the following exemptions, where it is appropriate:

Register a T9 exemption

You need to register this exemption with the Environment Agency if you meet the requirements:

If you want to treat more than the amount of waste allowed under this exemption or treat end-of-life vehicles, you will need to apply for an environmental permit.

Definitions

End-of-life vehicle (ELV) – an ELV is any type of motor vehicle that is waste. Waste is anything you discard, intend to discard or are required to discard. This includes metal sent for recycling or reuse.

Depolluted end-of-life vehicle – a waste vehicle from which all hazardous substances or components, including fuels, lubricating and hydraulic oils, coolants, batteries, air conditioning fluids and air bags have been removed.

Hazardous waste – see How to classify different types of waste.

Sealed drainage – means a drainage system with an impermeable surface that ensures that:

  • no liquid will run off the surface apart from via the system
  • except where they may be lawfully discharged, all liquids entering the system are collected in a sealed sump

T10: sorting mixed waste

This exemption allows small organisations, such as charities to sort out separate recyclable waste so that it can be recovered.

Types of activity you can carry out

These include:

  • a charity collects mixed aluminium cans and paper to raise money and needs to separate them
  • small amounts of mixed recyclable waste are collected and sorted

You can’t:

  • bale or shred the waste (see related exemptions)
  • accept waste that is mixed with a type of waste that is not permitted
  • accept waste that is contaminated with biodegradable waste

Types of waste you can treat

The waste codes are those listed in the List of Wastes (LoW) Regulations. You need to make sure your waste fits within the relevant waste code and description.

Waste code Type of waste
150101, 200101 Paper and cardboard
150102, 200139 Plastics
150104, 200140 Metals
150105 Composite packaging
150106 Mixed packaging
150107, 200102 Glass
150109, 200110, 200111 Textiles and clothing only

Amount of waste you can treat

You can:

  • store up to 10 tonnes at any one time
  • treat up to 10 tonnes within any seven-day period

Key conditions:

  • you can sort one type of the waste from another.
  • the waste must be stored in a secure place.

Related exemptions

You could register the following exemptions for further treating or using the waste once it has been sorted:

Register a T10 exemption

You need to register this exemption with the Environment Agency if you meet the requirements:

If you want to treat more than the amount of waste allowed under this exemption or treat mixtures of waste not listed above, you must apply for an environmental permit.

Definitions

Hazardous waste – see How to classify different types of waste.

Secure – a container, lagoon or other place is secure in relation to waste kept in it if:

  • all reasonable precautions are taken to make sure the waste can’t escape
  • members of the public can’t gain access to the waste

T11: repairing or refurbishing waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)

This exemption allows you to repair, refurbish or dismantle various types of waste electrical and electronic equipment so that the whole WEEE item or any dismantled parts can be reused for their original purpose or dismantled parts can be recovered.

Types of activity you can carry out

These include:

  • a business collects waste computers from householders and businesses that no longer want them
  • a reclamation group receives waste electrical goods collected by the local authority from businesses and households

Both sort out the waste equipment into those that can be repaired and those that can’t. Once sorted they repair some items and dismantle the rest to be reused as parts.

You can’t:

  • de-gas or remove oil or refrigerant from refrigeration equipment
  • treat WEEE to be disposed of to landfill or incinerated
  • mix hazardous waste with other hazardous or non-hazardous waste
  • accept or treat fluorescent light bulbs or tubes

Types of waste you can treat

The waste codes are listed in the List of Wastes (LoW) Regulations. You need to make sure your waste fits within the relevant waste code and description.

Waste code Type of waste
160211* WEEE containing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
160213* WEEE containing hazardous substances or components other than polychlorinated biphenyls, CFC, HCFC or HFC, or free asbestos. For example, a TV monitor containing a cathode ray tube.
160214 WEEE not containing hazardous substances or components.
160216 Non hazardous components removed from discarded equipment
200123* WEEE containing CFCs
200135* WEEE containing hazardous components other than fluorescent tubes and other mercury containing waste or CFCs
200136 WEEE not containing hazardous substances or components

Amount of waste you can treat

You can:

  • store or treat up to 1,000 tonnes over any 12-month period

Key conditions:

  • you must use the best available treatment, recovery and recycling techniques (BATRRT) when treating the waste - see BATRRT guidance for more information
  • the place where WEEE is stored or treated should have an impermeable surface with facilities for collecting spillages and, where appropriate, decanters and cleanser-degreasers
  • the area where WEEE is stored should have a weatherproof covering – a covered container or roofed building
  • whole and dismantled WEEE components should be stored appropriately to prevent them being damaged that could stop them being reused or pose a risk to the environment
  • hazardous waste, such as batteries, should be stored in suitable containers
  • the purpose must be to ensure that the WEEE is put back to use as whole equipment if possible. If not possible, equipment can be taken apart so that the components can be used again. If that is not possible, equipment can be taken apart so the materials can be recycled

S2 - storing waste in a secure place

Register a T11 exemption

You must register this exemption with the Environment Agency if you meet the requirements:

Apply for an environmental permit

There is an £840 charge for the three-year period, for this exemption only.

You need to use the specific form to register this exemption.

If you want to treat more than the amount of waste allowed under this exemption, you must apply for an environmental permit.

Definitions

Impermeable surface – a surface or pavement constructed and maintained to a standard that can prevent liquids seeping beyond the surface.

T12: manually treating waste

This exemption allows you to sort, repair or refurbish waste to reuse it, or to sort and dismantle it so it can be recovered.

Types of activity you can carry out

These include:

  • a charity collecting discarded furniture, bicycles and garden tools to repair or refurbish them so they can be used again
  • a company collecting mattresses to dismantle them to recover the various parts

You can’t:

  • treat the waste in any other way than by sorting, repairing, refurbishing or dismantling
  • use this exemption if you are treating the waste to dispose of it to landfill or to incinerate it
  • store or sort through general mixed waste under this exemption

Types and quantities of waste you can treat

The waste codes are listed in the List of Wastes (LoW) Regulations. You need to make sure your waste fits within the relevant waste code and description. In all examples allowed in T12, the types of waste are more restricted than the LoW code. This is indicated by the word ‘only’ in the types of waste description.

Waste for sorting, repairing or refurbishing

Waste code Type of waste Sorting, repairing or refurbishing (tonnes) at any one time Storage (years)
200199 Bicycles only 100 2
200110 Clothing, fabrics 100 2
200111 Carpets only 100 2
200199 Footwear only 100 2
200307 Furniture only 100 2
200138, 200139 , 200140 Garden tools only 100 2
170904, 170102, 170201, 200138 Stone, bricks, wood only 500 2
170201, 170202, 170203, 200102, 200138, 200139, 200140 Windows, doors only 100 2
150103 Wooden pallets only 100 2

Waste for sorting and dismantling

Waste code Type of waste Sorting and dismantling (tonnes) at any one time Storage duration
200138, 200139, 200140 Coat hangers only 100 12 months
200140 Domestic pots and pans only 100 2 years
200138, 200139, 200140 Lock gates only 100 2 years
200307 Mattresses only 5 12 months
200137*, 200138, 200140 Telegraph poles only 100 12 months
170201,170202,170203, 200102, 200138, 200139, 200140 Windows, doors only 10 12 months
150103 Wooden pallets only 100 12 months

Key condition

Mattresses must be treated and stored indoors.

You can use some types of waste under:

  • U8 - using waste for a specified purpose

Register a T12 exemption

You need to register this exemption with the Environment Agency if you will meet the requirements:

Apply for an environmental permit

If you want to treat more than the amount of waste allowed under this exemption or any other types of waste not listed here, you will need to apply for an environmental permit.

T13: treating waste food

This exemption allows you to recover waste food by decanting or unwrapping it and recovering the packaging.

Types of activity you can carry out

These include:

  • unwrapping waste food from a supermarket that is past its sell-by date so it can be composted or put through a digestion process
  • bulking up waste food or packaging to reduce transportation costs

You can’t:

  • store or treat waste covered by the Animal By-Products Regulations that are going to be fed to animals
  • treat the waste food further, for example by composting under this exemption (see related exemptions)

Types of waste you can treat

The waste codes are listed in the List of Wastes (LoW) Regulations. You need to make sure your waste fits within the relevant waste code and description.

Waste code Type of waste
020304, 020501, 020601, 020704 Materials unsuitable for consumption
200199 Non liquid foods unsuitable for consumption or processing

Amount of waste you can treat

You can store or treat up to 30 tonnes of waste at any one time.

Key conditions

You can carry out the following treatments to the waste, including the packaging:

  • decanting
  • unwrapping
  • bulking up
  • sorting
  • no waste must be stored for longer than 7 days

The treatment and storage must take place indoors, and in a secure place.

Other things you need to know

You should take measures to reduce odours by making sure that waste food is treated and moved on to be reused or recovered as soon as possible.

You also need to comply with other legislation, particularly The Animal By-Products Regulations.

Related exemptions

T23 - aerobic composting and associated prior treatment.

T25 - anaerobic digestion at premises not used for agriculture and burning the resultant biogas.

Register a T13 exemption

You need to register this exemption with the Environment Agency if you will meet the requirements:

Apply for an environmental permit

Definitions

Hazardous waste – see How to classify different types of waste.

Secure – a container, lagoon or other place is secure in relation to waste kept in it if:

  • all reasonable precautions are taken to make sure the waste can’t escape
  • members of the public can’t gain access to the waste

T14: crushing and emptying vehicle waste oil filters

This exemption allows you to recover oil from oil filters, then crush them so they can be transported to be recovered.

Types of activity you can carry out

These include:

  • at a garage you can change an oil filter during a vehicle service, drain the oil from the old filter and then crush it to make it easier to store before it is collected to be recovered

You can’t:

  • crush any other part of a vehicle under this exemption
  • mix hazardous waste with other hazardous or non-hazardous waste

Type of waste you can treat

The waste codes are listed in the List of Wastes (LoW) Regulations. You need to make sure your waste fits within the relevant waste code and description.

Waste code Type of waste
160107* Oil filters

Amount of waste you can treat

You can store up to one tonne of crushed and emptied waste oil filters at any one time.

Key conditions

The equipment used to treat the waste is:

  • designed for crushing oil filters
  • designed and maintained to make sure that oil doesn’t escape during treatment

The treatment of the waste oil filters takes place as soon as possible after the oil filter is removed from the vehicle.

The treatment of the waste oil filters must take place where the filters are removed.

What else you need to know

Waste oil and waste oil filters should be stored in a container with secondary containment to prevent it escaping into the environment.

Register a T14 exemption

You must register this exemption with the Environment Agency if you meet the requirements:

Apply for an environmental permit

If you want to treat other parts of an end-of-life vehicle, you must to apply for an environmental permit.

Definitions

Place of production – the place where the waste was originally produced.

Secondary containment – a bund or any other system for preventing waste that has leaked from its main container from escaping from the place where it is stored or treated.

T15: treating waste aerosol cans

This exemption allows you to treat aerosol cans by puncturing or crushing them using specialist treatment equipment so that the metal can be recovered.

Types of activity you can carry out

These include:

  • you run a fleet of vehicles. You collect the empty de-icer cans back at your depot and wish to treat the aerosol cans before taking them off-site to be recovered
  • use aerosol cans treatment equipment (see definitions) to crush a single type of aerosol can to allow the metal can to be recycled

You can’t:

  • collect aerosol cans from different places and take them back to a single place for treatment.
  • mix hazardous waste with other hazardous or non-hazardous waste.

The types of waste you can treat

The waste codes are those listed in the List of Wastes (LoW) Regulations. You need to make sure your waste fits within the relevant waste code and description.

Waste code Type of waste
160504* Aerosol cans containing residues of or contaminated by dangerous substances only
160505 Aerosol cans only

*May be hazardous waste

The amount of waste you can treat

You can store or treat up to 3,000 cans in any 12-month period.

Key conditions

The:

  • treatment and storage can only be carried out at the place where aerosols are produced
  • waste must be stored in a secure location in vented containers before being treated
  • treatment must be carried out in a well-ventilated area
  • equipment used to treat the aerosols must be designed for the purpose

Other things you need to know

If your activity is regulated under the Solvents Emissions Directive you can’t register this exemption. It should be treated as a Directly Associated activity under your permit.

Register a T15 exemption

You need to register this exemption with the Environment Agency if you will meet the requirements:

Register a T15 waste exemption

Definitions

Hazardous waste – see How to classify different types of waste.

Aerosol cans treatment equipment - the manual crushing of a single type* of aerosol can at the place of production using equipment, which ensures the:

  • collection and secure storage of the cans for recycling
  • collection and secure storage of residues for disposal or recycling
  • filtering of gas and solvents through carbon filters which are approved to a suitable British standard

Except where a small number of aerosols (15 aerosols a week, with no more than five being stored at any one time) are crushed on a daily basis. In this situation, we consider suitable treatment equipment to be:

  • an earthed table or support, coupled with an aerosol-piercing device consisting of a brass spike (at least 10 cm long) and wooden or rubber headed mallet
  • ‘a single type’ - refers to the can contents and propellants. All the contents and propellants of all the cans crushed must be the same to ensure incompatible contents are not mixed

T16: treating waste toner and ink cartridges

This exemption allows you to treat waste toner or ink cartridges by sorting, cleaning, dismantling or refilling them.

The type of activity you can carry out

This includes:

  • cleaning and refilling waste toner cartridges so they can be reused

You can’t:

  • treat waste toner or ink cartridges that are hazardous waste
  • treat waste toner or ink cartridges to dispose of them to landfill or incinerate them

The types of waste you can treat

The waste codes are those listed in the List of Wastes (LoW) Regulations. You need to make sure your waste fits within the relevant waste code and description.

Waste code Type of waste
080313 Waste ink not containing dangerous substances
080318 Waste printing toner not containing dangerous substances
150102 Plastic packaging
160216 Cartridges not containing dangerous substances taken from discarded electrical equipment
200139 Plastics

The amount of waste you can treat

You can store and treat up to 150 tonnes of cartridges at any one time.

Key conditions

The treatment must be carried out indoors.

The waste must be treated in a location with sealed drainage.

Other things you need to know

Any waste toner or ink produced from the treatment activity should be stored to prevent it being released into the environment.

S2 - storage of waste in a secure place.

Register a T16 exemption

You need to register this exemption with the Environment Agency if you will meet the requirements:

Apply for an environmental permit

Definitions

Hazardous waste - see How to classify different types of waste

Sealed drainage – a drainage system with an impermeable surface that makes sure that:

  • no liquid will run off the surface apart from via the system.
  • except where they may be lawfully discharged, all liquids entering the system are collected in a sealed sump.

T17: crushing waste fluorescent tubes

This exemption allows you to treat waste fluorescent tubes before collection for recovery.

The type of activity you can carry out

This includes:

  • you run a large office block with lots of fluorescent tubes used for lighting. Once a year you hire in a crusher specially designed to crush the tubes and capture any mercury emissions to make it easier to collect and transport the materials for recovery elsewhere

You can’t:

  • bring in fluorescent tubes to your site to crush them
  • mix hazardous waste with other hazardous or non-hazardous waste

The type of waste you can treat

The waste codes are those listed in the List of Wastes (LoW) Regulations. You need to make sure your waste fits within the relevant waste code and description.

Waste code Type of waste
200121* Fluorescent tubes only

*hazardous waste

The amount of waste you can treat

  • you can crush up to 3 tonnes of waste in a 24-hour period
  • the mercury concentration in any resultant emissions must not exceed 25 microgrammes per cubic metre

Key conditions

Any glass or mercury released after crushing must be stored in a secure container under weatherproof covering.

The equipment used to treat the waste must be designed for that purpose and must be able to meet the above mercury concentration emission threshold.

The crushing can only be carried out at the place where the tubes are produced.

Register a T17 exemption

You need to register this exemption with the Environment Agency if you will meet the requirements:

Apply for an environmental permit

If you want to treat fluorescent tubes at any other location you will need to apply for an environmental permit.

Definitions

Hazardous waste - see How to classify different types of waste.

Secure – a container, lagoon or other place is secure in relation to waste kept in it if:

  • all reasonable precautions are taken to make sure the waste cannot escape
  • members of the public can’t gain access to the waste

Weatherproof covering – may, in some circumstances, simply involve a lid or cover over a container, but, in others, a roofed shelter or building may be more appropriate.

Place of production – the place where the waste is originally produced.

T18: using flocculants to remove water from waste

This exemption allows you to treat waste by using flocculants to remove water from the waste so that clay or water-based paints can be recovered.

Types of activity you can carry out

These include:

  • removing water from clay effluent produced from manufacturing ceramics to recover the clay and/or water
  • recovering water-based paints from wash water

You can’t:

  • use this exemption if you are planning to dispose of the waste, for example by discharging it to a sewer
  • treat hazardous waste

Types of waste you can treat

The waste codes are those listed in the List of Wastes (LoW) Regulations. You need to make sure your waste fits within the relevant waste code and description.

Waste code Type of waste
010409 Clay effluent from the manufacture of ceramics
080120 Water-based paint wash water

Quantity of waste you can treat

You can store or treat up to 30,000 litres at any one time.

Key conditions

The waste must be stored in a container with secondary containment.

What else you need to know

You must not discharge dirty water to controlled waters or sewers without the correct consent. See How to comply with your environmental permit - additional guidance for water discharge and groundwater.

Register a T18 exemption

You need to register this exemption with the Environment Agency if you will meet the requirements:

Apply for an environmental permit

Definitions

Hazardous waste - see How to classify different types of waste.

Secondary containment – a bund or any other system for preventing waste that has leaked from its main container from escaping from the place where it is stored or treated.

T19: physical and chemical treatment of waste edible oil and fat to produce biodiesel

This exemption allows the small-scale physical and chemical treatment of waste edible oils and fat to produce fuel.

Type of activity you can carry out

This includes:

  • collecting chip frying oil from chip shops and treating it to make biodiesel

You can’t:

  • accept any other waste oils
  • treat waste where the main purpose is to dispose of it to landfill or incineration

Type of waste you can treat

The waste codes are those listed in the List of Wastes (LoW) Regulations. You need to make sure your waste fits within the relevant waste code and description.

Waste code Type of waste
200125 Edible oil and fat

Quantity of waste you can treat

You can:

  • physically treat or store up to 5,000 litres at any one time
  • chemically treat up to 250 litres at any one time
  • store waste for up to three months

Key conditions

The waste must be stored in a container with secondary containment.

What else you need to know

You need to know that:

  • there is a quality protocol for biodiesel
  • unless the biodiesel is produced and supplied under the quality protocol for biodiesel, it is still waste
  • if you produce more than 2,500 litres of biodiesel a year, HM Revenue and Customs allow you to account for excise duty at a lower rate.

To register you need Form EX 103 HM Revenue and Customs - Biodiesel.

U5 - using waste-derived biodiesel as fuel

Register a T19 exemption

You need to register this exemption with the Environment Agency if you will meet the requirements:

Register a T19 waste exemption

If you want to produce more biodiesel than this exemption will allow, you will need an environmental permit.

Definitions

Secondary containment – a bund or any other system for preventing waste that has leaked from its main container from escaping from the place where it is stored or treated.

T20: treating waste at a water treatment works

This exemption allows you to treat certain waste at a water treatment works to reduce the volume for transport or to make it easier to handle before the waste is recovered.

Types of activity you can carry out

These include:

  • storing and treating sludge from water clarification by removing water

You can’t:

  • use this exemption to treat waste at locations other than at a water treatment works
  • treat hazardous waste

Types of waste you can treat

The waste codes are those listed in the List of Wastes (LoW) Regulations. You need to make sure your waste fits within the relevant waste code and description.

Waste code Type of waste
190902 Sludge from water clarification
190903 Sludge from decarbonation
190906 Solutions and sludge from regeneration of ion exchangers
190999 Waste water and bore hole flushings only

Quantity of waste you can treat

You can:

  • treat up to 10,000 cubic metres of waste over any 12-month period

Key conditions

The waste must be treated and stored in a secure location with sealed drainage.

What else you need to know

You must not discharge dirty water to controlled waters or sewers without the correct consent. See How to comply with your environmental permit - additional guidance for water discharge and groundwater.

U8 - using waste for a specified purpose

T21 - recovering waste at a waste water treatment works

Register a T20 exemption

You need to register this exemption with the Environment Agency if you will meet the requirements:

Apply for an environmental permit

Definitions

Secure – a container, lagoon or other place is secure in relation to waste kept in it if:

  • all reasonable precautions are taken to make sure the waste can’t escape
  • members of the public can’t gain access to the waste

Sealed drainage – a drainage system with an impermeable surface that makes sure that:

  • no liquid will run off the surface apart from via the system
  • except where they may be lawfully discharged, all liquids entering the system are collected in a sealed sump

Hazardous waste - see How to classify different types of waste.

T21: recover waste at a waste water treatment works

This exemption allows you to recover waste, such as sludge from a septic tank or cesspool, which needs further treatment at a waste water treatment works.

Type of activity you can carry out

This includes:

  • septic tank sludge stored and treated at a sewage treatment works

You can’t:

  • use this exemption to treat waste at locations other than at a water treatment works
  • treat hazardous waste

Type of waste you can treat

The waste codes are those listed in the List of Wastes (LoW) Regulations. You need to make sure your waste fits within the relevant waste code and description.

Waste code Type of waste
190801 Screenings
190802 Sewage grit (waste from de-sanding) only
190805 Sludge from treating urban waste water
190899 Centrate liquor only
190902 Sludge from water clarification
190903 Sludge from decarbonation
190906 Solutions and sludge from regeneration of ion exchangers
200304 Septic tank sludge
200306 Waste from sewage cleaning
200399 Cesspool waste and other sewage sludge only

Quantity of waste you can treat

You can treat up to 100,000 cubic metres of waste over any 12-month period.

Key conditions

The waste must be stored and treated in a secure location with sealed drainage.

T20 - treating waste at a water treatment works

Register this exemption

You must register this exemption with the Environment Agency if you will meet the requirements:

Apply for an environmental permit

Definitions

Hazardous waste – see How to classify different types of waste.

Sealed drainage – a drainage system with an impermeable surface that makes sure that:

  • no liquid will run off the surface apart from via the system
  • except where they may be lawfully discharged, all liquids entering the system are collected in a sealed sump

Secure – a container, lagoon or other place is secure in relation to waste kept in it if:

  • all reasonable precautions are taken to make sure the waste can’t escape
  • members of the public can’t gain access to the waste

T23: aerobic composting and associated prior treatment

This exemption allows you to compost small volumes of vegetation, cardboard and food waste to produce compost that can be spread to benefit the land by adding nutrients or improving the structure of the soil. You can also treat the waste, before you compost it, by chipping or similar activities.

Types of activity you can carry out

These include:

  • school composting kitchen and garden waste in its grounds
  • allotment association composting their old plants and trimmings
  • community composting group bringing locally produced vegetable peelings and garden waste to a central point for composting before it is used back in local gardens

You can’t:

  • purposely treat the waste in the absence of oxygen (anaerobically) – see related exemptions
  • treat waste not listed under this exemption
  • treat waste that is an animal by-product unless you have appropriate authorisation

Types of waste you can treat

The types of waste you can treat under this exemption can be grouped into two tables. These show the maximum quantities you can use and conditions for using the specific types of waste.

The waste codes are those listed in the List of Wastes (LoW) Regulations. You need to make sure your waste fits within the relevant waste code and the description in the table.

Table 1

Waste code Type of waste Quantity limit (tonnes)
170506 Plant tissue waste from inland waters only see ‘Quantity of waste you can treat’
020103, 200201 Plant tissue waste see ‘Quantity of waste you can treat’
020106 Horse manure and farmyard manure only 20
020107 Biodegradable waste from forestry only see ‘Quantity of waste you can treat’
020199 Fully biodegradable animal bedding see ‘Quantity of waste you can treat’
200101 Paper and cardboard 10
200201 Biodegradable waste plant matter only see ‘Quantity of waste you can treat’

You can store any of the waste in Table 1 for up to one month before treatment.

Table 2

Waste code Type of waste
020202 Animal tissue waste
020501, 020601 Materials unsuitable for consumption or processing
200108 Biodegradable kitchen and canteen waste
200302 Biodegradable waste from markets only

For waste in Table 2 you can:

  • treat up to 10 tonnes in total of this waste at any time
  • store it for up to seven days before treatment

After treatment you can:

  • store the compost for up to 12 months, but this is included in the total quantity that can be stored or treated

Quantity of waste you can treat

There are two separate limits for the amount of waste you can store or treat at a place at any one time.

You can store or treat up to 80 tonnes of waste at any one time if you compost and use the waste in the same place it was produced.

This could apply to a large estate such as a National Trust property, a plant nursery or an allotment association.

You can store or treat up to 60 tonnes of waste at any one time if you:

  • bring waste from other places to the place where it will be composted
  • use the compost somewhere other than where it was composted

This could apply to an allotment association or a community composting group.

Key conditions

The treatment must produce a stable sanitised material (see compost definition) that can be spread onto land to add nutrients or improve the soil structure.

Other things you should know

Associated prior treatment in this exemption means screening, chipping, shredding, cutting, pulverising or sorting waste for aerobic composting.

Composting can be done in open windows, in heaps that are turned regularly or in small closed vessels (known as In-Vessel Composting (IVC)).

Composting is an active process and you must maintain the right conditions to prevent the treatment becoming anaerobic as this would lead to odours and poor compost being produced.

There is a composting industry code of practice which you can find on the Organics Recycling Group website.

Animal by-products Regulations – animal by-products can include 020202 animal tissue waste or catering waste from kitchens and restaurants (200108 biodegradable kitchen and canteen waste).

If you are intending to compost animal by-products you may also need approval from the Animal Health Veterinary Laboratory Agency (AHVLA). You are particularly likely to need AHVLA approval if you intend to supply compost to other users or use the compost at another place.

You have to exclude farmed animals (includes pet sheep, cattle, pigs or poultry) from the area where the composting takes place and where the compost will be used.

For further information on animal by-products requirements, see the AHVLA website.

Compost Quality Protocol – working with WRAP (Waste & Resources Action Programme) the Environment Agency has developed a quality protocol for producing compost from different types of segregated biowaste, including food and garden waste. The aim is to help you produce compost that would not need to be classified as waste.

If you comply with the Compost Quality Protocol and produce a compost that complies with the PAS 100 standard, the Environment Agency would not consider the compost as waste.

Related exemptions

T24 - anaerobic digestion at premises used for agriculture and burning of resulting biogas

T25 - anaerobic digestion at premises not used for agriculture and burning of resulting biogas

U10 - spreading waste to benefit agricultural land

U11 - spreading waste on non-agricultural land

Register this exemption

You must register this exemption with the Environment Agency if you will meet the requirements:

Apply for an environmental permit

If you want to compost more waste than is allowed under this exemption, you will need to apply for an environmental permit.

Definitions

Aerobic composting – decomposing biodegradable waste using bacteria, yeast and fungi that need oxygen to produce compost.

Catering waste – all waste food, including used cooking oil originating in restaurants, catering facilities and kitchens, including central kitchens and household kitchens.

Compost – a solid particulate material that is the result of composting, which has been sanitised and stabilised, and which benefits the soil when added to it.

T24: anaerobic digestion at premises used for agriculture and burning resulting biogas

This exemption allows farmers to anaerobically digest manure, slurry and vegetation on their farms to produce digestate that can be used as a fertiliser or soil conditioner.

The anaerobic digestion (AD) process also produces biogas, which can be burnt to generate energy, either to use on the farm or to export to the National Grid.

Types of activity you can carry out

These include:

  • anaerobic digestion of manure and plant tissue waste in a dedicated AD plant to produce a digestate
  • burning the biogas to produce energy to provide power on your farm or to export to the National Grid
  • sorting, screening, cutting, shredding, pulverising and chipping the waste to help the AD process

You can’t:

  • dispose of the biogas by flaring except if appliances burning biogas break down or when they are being maintained
  • dispose of the biogas by venting it to the atmosphere
  • compost the manure and plant tissue (if you want to do this, you need to register exemption T23 – Aerobic composting)
  • spread the digestate produced under this exemption (see related exemptions).

Types of waste you can treat

The waste codes are those listed in the List of Wastes (LoW) Regulations. You need to make sure your waste fits within the relevant waste code and description.

Waste code Type of waste
020103, 020107, 170506, 200201 Plant tissue waste
020106 Horse and farmyard manure, slurry only
020199 Fully biodegradable animal bedding

Quantity of waste you can treat

You can store or treat up to 1,250 cubic metres of waste at any one time.

This storage limit does not include manure and slurry pits where these materials have been produced on the same farm and are being stored before being treated in the digester.

If you import manure and slurry from other farms and store it before it is fed into your AD plant, the storage of this waste is included within the 1,250 cubic metre limit.

When manure and slurry is mixed with plant tissue waste the 1,250 cubic metre limit will include the storage of plant tissue waste, material in the digester and the storage of the resulting digestate.

Key conditions

You must:

  • keep the waste in the digester for at least 28 days
  • collect and burn the biogas produced by the AD process to produce energy
  • use a net rated thermal input of less than 0.4MW on the AD plant biogas burner
  • have a combined net rated thermal input of less than 0.4MW if there is more than one burner associated with the AD plant

Other things you need to know

Anaerobic digestion is different from composting. The AD process involves decomposing waste in an atmosphere with no oxygen and it requires a purpose-built plant.

Once the AD process is completed it produces a digestate.

If the only waste feedstock to the anaerobic digestion process is farmyard manure or slurry only, we accept that the digestate can be spread on agricultural land as a fertiliser or soil conditioner without being regulated as waste. However, you would still need to comply with the code of good agricultural practice and any requirements for Nitrate Vulnerable Zones.

Related exemptions

T23 - aerobic composting and associated prior treatment

T25 - anaerobic digestion at premises not used for agriculture and burning of resulting biogas

U10 - spreading waste to benefit agricultural land

U11 - spreading waste on non-agricultural land

Register this exemption

You must register this exemption with the Environment Agency if you will meet the requirements:

Apply for an environmental permit

If you can’t comply with the limits and quantities in this exemption you will need to apply for an environmental permit.

Definitions

Digestate – output from the treatment of organic and biodegradable waste by anaerobic digestion.

Net rated thermal input – the rate at which fuel can be burned at the maximum continuous rating of the appliance, multiplied by the net calorific value of the fuel and expressed as megawatts thermal.

Plant tissue waste – includes all materials of plant origin such as trees, shrubbery, branches with or without foliage, leaves or foliage wood and vegetation.

T25: anaerobic digestion at premises not used for agriculture and burning resulting biogas

This exemption allows you to treat food and other biodegradable waste by anaerobic digestion to produce a digestate, which can be used to benefit land. The gas produced (biogas) must be used for generating energy.

Types of activity you can carry out

This includes:

  • a business or organisation, such as a hotel, prison or hospital using a small anaerobic digestion plant for their kitchen waste producing digestate for use on the gardens and biogas to generate electricity
  • sorting, screening, cutting, shredding, pulverising and chipping the waste to help the AD process

You can’t:

  • aerobically treat the waste see related exemptions
  • release the gas produced into the air
  • dispose of the biogas by flaring except if appliances burning biogas breakdown or are being routinely maintained
  • treat hazardous waste
  • treat waste that is an animal by-product without an appropriate authorisation from Animal Health

Types of waste you can treat

The waste codes are those listed in the List of Wastes (LoW) Regulations. You need to make sure your waste fits within the relevant waste code and description.

Waste code Type of waste
020103, 020107, 170506, 200201 Plant tissue waste
020106 Horse and farmyard manure only
200101 Paper and cardboard
200108 Biodegradable kitchen and canteen waste
020199 Fully biodegradable animal bedding
020202 Animal tissue waste
020501, 020601 Materials unsuitable for consumption or processing
200302 Biodegradable waste from markets only

Quantity of waste you can treat

You can store or treat up to 50 cubic metres of waste at any one time.

Key conditions

You must:

  • collect and burn any gas produced by the anaerobic digester in an appliance
  • use an appliance with a net rated thermal input of less than 0.4MW. If there is more than one appliance, the total net rated thermal input must be less than 0.4MW (for example four 0.1 MW appliances)
  • treat the waste within the digester for at least 28 days

Other things you need to know

Associated prior treatment in relation to this exemption means screening, chipping, shredding, cutting, pulverising or sorting waste for the purposes of anaerobic digestion.

Animal by-products Regulations – animal by-products can include 020202 animal tissue waste or catering waste from kitchens and restaurants (200108 biodegradable kitchen and canteen waste).

If you are intending to compost animal by-products you may also need approval from the Animal Health Veterinary Laboratory Agency (AHVLA). You are particularly likely to need AHVLA approval if you intend to supply compost to other users or use the compost at another place.

You have to exclude farmed animals (includes pet sheep, cattle, pigs or poultry) from the area where the composting takes place and where the compost will be used.

For further information on animal by-products requirements, see the AHVLA website.

Anaerobic digestate quality protocol – working with WRAP (Waste & Resources Action Programme) we have developed a quality protocol for producing anaerobic digestate from different types of segregated biowaste, including food and garden waste. The aim is to help you produce a digestate that would not need to be classified as waste.

If you comply with the Anaerobic digestate quality protocol and produce a digestate that complies with the PAS 110 standard, the Environment Agency would not consider the digestate as waste.

Related exemptions

T23 - aerobic composting and associated prior treatment

T24 - anaerobic digestion at premises used for agriculture and burning of resulting biogas

U10 - spreading waste to benefit agricultural land

U11 - spreading waste on non-agricultural land

Register this exemption

You need to register this exemption with the Environment Agency if you will meet the requirements:

Apply for an environmental permit

If you want to treat waste not listed under this exemption or you want to treat more waste than is allowed under this exemption, you will need to apply for an environmental permit.

Definitions

Anaerobic digestion – decomposing biodegradable waste using bacteria, yeast and fungi that need oxygen to produce digestate and biogas.

Catering waste – all waste food, including used cooking oil originating in restaurants, catering facilities and kitchens, including central kitchens and household kitchens.

Digestate – output from the treatment of organic and biodegradable waste by anaerobic digestion.

Hazardous waste – see How to classify different types of waste.

Net rated thermal input – the rate at which fuel can be burned at the maximum continuous rating of the appliance, multiplied by the net calorific value of the fuel and expressed as megawatts thermal.

Plant tissue waste – includes all materials of plant origin such as trees, shrubbery, branches with or without foliage, leaves or foliage wood and vegetation.

T26: treatment of kitchen waste in a wormery

This exemption allows very small-scale treatment of waste from kitchens using a wormery to produce compost. The compost can be spread on land to add nutrients or to improve the structure of the soil.

Type of activity you can carry out

This includes:

  • you want to compost kitchen waste from your office canteen, along with a small amount of shredded cardboard, to provide a drier fibrous element

You can’t:

  • treat waste not listed under this exemption

Types of wastes you can treat

The waste codes are those listed in the List of Wastes (LoW) Regulations. You need to make sure your waste fits within the relevant waste code and description.

Waste code Type of waste
200101 Paper and cardboard
200108 Biodegradable kitchen and canteen waste

Quantity of waste you can treat

You can treat up to 6 tonnes of waste over any 12-month period.

Key conditions

The treatment must result in a stable, sanitised vermicompost that can be applied to land.

Other things you need to know

Animal by-products Regulations – animal by-products can include catering waste from kitchens and restaurants (200108 biodegradable kitchen and canteen waste).

If you are intending to compost animal by-products you may also need approval from the Animal Health Veterinary Laboratory Agency (AHVLA). See AHVLA website. You are particularly likely to need AHVLA approval if you intend to supply compost to other users or use the compost at another place.

You have to exclude farmed animals (includes pet sheep, cattle, pigs or poultry) from the area where the composting takes place and where the compost will be used.

For further information on animal by-products requirements, see the AHVLA website.

T23 - aerobic composting and associated prior treatment

T25 - anaerobic digestion at premises not used for agriculture and burning of resulting biogas

U10 - spreading waste to benefit agricultural land

U11 - spreading waste on non-agricultural land

Register this exemption

You need to register this exemption with the Environment Agency if you will meet the requirements:

Apply for an environmental permit

If you want to treat waste not listed under this exemption or you want to treat more waste than is allowed under this exemption, you will need to apply for an environmental permit.

Definitions

Catering waste - all waste food, including used cooking oil originating in restaurants, catering facilities and kitchens, including central kitchens and household kitchens.

Vermicompost – also called ‘worm compost’ is the end-product of the breakdown of organic matter by some species of earthworm. It is a nutrient-rich, natural fertiliser and soil conditioner.

T27: treatment of sheep dip using organophosphate-degrading enzyme

This exemption allows organophosphate sheep dip to be treated with an approved organophosphate degrading enzyme.

Type of activity you can carry out

You can:

  • treat organophosphate sheep dip with an approved enzyme at the place where you use the sheep dip

You can’t:

  • bring back used and waste sheep dip from other places to be treated on your farm
  • allow others to bring their waste sheep dip to your sheep farm to treat it in your sheep bath

Mobile sheep dippers must not register this exemption if they are transporting waste sheep dip back to their premises to be treated.

Type of waste you can treat

The waste codes are those listed in the List of Wastes (LoW) Regulations. You need to make sure your waste fits within the relevant waste code and description.

Waste code Type of waste
020109 Organophosphate sheep dip only

Quantity of waste you can treat

You can:

  • store or treat up to a maximum of 8,000 litres of sheep dip over a 24-hour period only at the place it was produced

Key conditions

You must:

  • treat the sheep dip only in accordance with the enzyme manufacturer’s instructions
  • carry out the enzyme treatment in a secure container inside a drain pen or in a secure sheep dip bath
  • carry out the treatment and storage of the sheep dip so that no sheep dip (treated or untreated) can get into drains, watercourses or onto land

Register this exemption

You need to register this exemption with us if you will meet the requirements:

Apply for an environmental permit

If you want to dispose of the sheep dip that has been treated with an approved enzyme by discharging it to land, you will need to apply for an environmental permit.

Definitions

Drain pen – an impermeable area draining back to the sheep dip bath where newly-dipped sheep are held while they continue to dip.

Secure – a container, lagoon or other place is secure in relation to waste kept in it if:

  • all reasonable precautions are taken to make sure the waste can’t escape
  • members of the public can’t gain access to the waste

T28: sort and denature controlled drugs for disposal

This exemption allows pharmacies and other similar places to comply with the requirements of the Misuse of Drugs Regulations 2001 by denaturing controlled drugs (making them unsuitable for consumption).

Type of activity you can carry out

This includes:

  • a pharmacy or veterinary surgery is required to denature controlled drugs before disposing of them

You can’t treat:

  • any waste drugs that are hazardous waste
  • controlled drugs at any other place than where they were produced

Types of waste you can treat

The waste codes are those listed in the List of Wastes (LoW) Regulations. You need to make sure your waste fits within the relevant waste code and description.

Waste code Type of waste
180109 Medicines from natal care, diagnosis, treatment or prevention of disease in humans
180208 Medicines from research, diagnosis, treatment or prevention of disease involving animals
200132 Medicines separately collected as municipal waste

Quantity of waste you can treat

You can:

  • store or treat up to 1 cubic metre of waste at any one time
  • store waste for up to six months

Key conditions

Under this exemption you can only sort or denature controlled drugs before disposing of them.

Other things you need to know

You can store other returned or out of date medicines under the Non Waste Framework Directive exemption for temporary storage of waste at a collection centre. There is no need to register the Non Waste Framework Directive exemption.

Register this exemption

You need to register this exemption with us if you will meet the requirements:

Apply for an environmental permit

Definitions

Controlled drug – a controlled drug specified in Schedules 1 to 5 of the Misuse of Drugs Regulations 2001.

Hazardous waste – see How to classify different types of waste

T29: treatment of non-hazardous pesticide washings by carbon filtration for disposal

This exemption allows you to treat non-hazardous pesticide washings before disposing of them to land. Pesticide washings treated this way are less likely to damage the environment when discharged to land compared to untreated pesticide washings.

Types of activity you can carry out

You can:

  • use a sealed carbon filtration unit, such as a sentinel unit, to treat surplus spray and pesticide washings produced on the farm or in landscaping or other uses

You can’t:

  • import pesticide washings from other places or farms to treat in your plant
  • treat hazardous pesticide washings

Types of waste you can treat

The waste codes are those listed in the List of Wastes (LoW) Regulations. You need to make sure your waste fits within the relevant waste code and description.

Waste code Type of waste
020109, 160509 Non-hazardous pesticide washings only

Quantity of waste you can treat

You can store or treat up to 8,000 litres of waste over any 24-hour period.

Key conditions

You must:

  • treat and store waste in the same place that the pesticides were used
  • carry out treatment of the pesticide washings in a sealed unit with sealed drainage

Other things you need to know

You must make sure that during treatment and storage, no pesticide washings (treated or untreated) can get into drains, watercourses or onto land and cause pollution.

You can also treat dilute pesticide washings in a biobed or biofilter under T32 - treatment of waste in a biobed or biofilter.

Register this exemption

You need to register this exemption with us if you will meet the requirements:

Apply for an environmental permit

If you want to dispose of the treated pesticides by discharging them to land, you will need to apply for an environmental permit.

Definitions

Hazardous waste – see How to classify different types of waste.

Sealed drainage – a drainage system with an impermeable surface that makes sure that:

  • no liquid will run off the surface apart from via the system
  • except where they may be lawfully discharged, all liquids entering the system are collected in a sealed sump

T30: recover silver

This exemption allows you to recover silver from waste produced in connection with printing or photographic processes.

Types of activity you can carry out

These include:

  • extracting silver from photographic films or paper to use again
  • using an on-site contained unit to remove silver from fixer and developer solutions

You can’t:

  • mix hazardous waste with other hazardous or non-hazardous waste

Types of waste you can treat

The waste codes are those listed in the List of Wastes (LoW) Regulations. You need to make sure your waste fits within the relevant waste code and description.

Waste code Type of waste
090106* Waste containing silver from on-site treatment of photographic waste
090107 Photographic film or paper containing silver or silver compounds

*May be hazardous waste

Quantity of waste you can treat

You can store or treat up to 1,000 litres of waste at any one time.

Key conditions

The treatment and storage of the waste is carried out in an area with sealed drainage.

Register this exemption

You need to register this exemption with the Environment Agency if you will meet the requirements:

Apply for an environmental permit

Definitions

Hazardous waste – see How to classify different types of waste.

Sealed drainage – a drainage system with an impermeable surface that makes sure that:

  • no liquid will run off the surface apart from via the system
  • except where they may be lawfully discharged, all liquids entering the system are collected in a sealed sump

T31: recover monopropylene glycol from aircraft antifreeze fluids

This exemption allows airports to treat waste antifreeze to recover monopropylene glycol.

Type of activity you can carry out

This includes:

  • filtering and distilling aircraft antifreeze fluids that have been collected following de-icing of aircrafts to recover monopropylene glycol

You can’t:

  • treat waste antifreeze fluids for disposal to, for example, a sewer
  • treat hazardous waste

Type of waste you can treat

The waste codes are those listed in the List of Wastes (LoW) Regulations. You need to make sure your waste fits within the relevant waste code and description.

Waste code Type of waste
160115 Antifreeze fluids not containing dangerous substances.

Quantity of waste you can treat

You can store or treat up to 250 cubic metres of waste over any 7 day period.

Key conditions

The waste must be:

  • treated in a location with sealed drainage
  • stored with secondary containment
  • treated at the airport where it was produced

Other things you need to know

Antifreeze is highly toxic to the water environment. You must keep stringent control on storing and treating waste antifreeze to prevent it being released into the environment.

Register this exemption

You need to register this exemption with us if you will meet the requirements:

Apply for an environmental permit

Definitions

Hazardous waste – see How to classify different types of waste.

Sealed drainage – a drainage system with an impermeable surface that makes sure that:

  • no liquid will run off the surface apart from via the system
  • except where they may be lawfully discharged, all liquids entering the system are collected in a sealed sump

Secondary containment – a bund or any other system for preventing waste that has leaked from its main container from escaping from the place where it is stored or treated.

T32: treatment of waste in a biobed or biofilter

This exemption allows you to treat non-hazardous pesticide washings in a biobed or biofilter. The treated washings can be re-used and the biobed material (biomix) can then be spread on land (under an exemption) for agricultural or ecological benefit.

Type of activity you can carry out

You can:

  • treat non-hazardous washings in a lined biobed or above-ground biofilter

You can’t:

  • treat pesticide washings that are hazardous waste
  • allow others to bring their pesticide washings to be treated in your biobed or biofilter
  • agricultural contractors cannot bring back pesticide washings they have produced while working on other farms

Types of waste you can treat

The waste codes are those listed in the List of Wastes (LoW) Regulations. You need to make sure your waste fits within the relevant waste code and description.

Waste code Type of waste
020109, 160509 Non-hazardous pesticide washings only

Quantity of waste you can treat

You can store or treat up to 15,000 litres of dilute pesticide washings in a 12-month period.

Key conditions

The treatment can only take place where the pesticide is used and the washings are produced.

You must site the lined biobed or biofilter in a secure place and it must have an impermeable lining.

The biobed or biofilter must be located at least:

  • 10 metres from a watercourse
  • 50 metres from a spring, well or borehole not used to supply water for producing domestic food
  • 250 metres from a borehole used to supply water for producing domestic food

You must not site the lined biobed or biofilter in an area that is designated as a groundwater Source Protection Zone 1. If you are located within a Source Protection Zone 1, email the Environment Agency at to see if you can agree site specific circumstances:

enquiries@environment-agency.gov.uk

Using the treated washings

Biobeds and biofilters are classed as waste recovery systems. This means that where possible, the treated water should be re-used. Possible re-use options include irrigation, sprayer washing or as the carrier for pre-crop total herbicide applications.

If the treated water is used for irrigation, it must be applied:

  • to a vegetated area
  • to ground that is not frozen or water logged
  • at least 10 metres away from any surface water
  • at least 50 metres from any spring, well or borehole not used for domestic or food production
  • at least 250 metres from a borehole used to supply domestic or food production

You can treat dilute pesticide washings in a sentinel unit if you register and comply with exemption:

T29 - treating non-hazardous pesticide washings by carbon filtration for disposal.

You can spread the biofilter and biobed material to land under exemption:

U10 - spreading waste to benefit agricultural land.

You can also spread the biofilter and biobed material to land under exemption:

U11 - spreading waste to benefit non-agricultural land.

Registering this exemption

You must register this exemption with the Environment Agency if you will meet the requirements:

Apply for an environmental permit

Definitions

Secure place – members of the public and farm animals cannot get access to it and the waste cannot leak from the biofilter/biobed.

Impermeable lining – a containment system that is constructed and maintained so that liquids are fully contained and cannot leak through it.

T33: recover central heating oil by filtration

This exemption allows you to filter central heating oil so that it can be reused.

Type of activity you can carry out

This includes:

  • filtering central heating oil from disused tanks so that the oil can be reused

You can’t:

  • treat any other types of oil by filtration
  • treat central heating oil for disposal
  • mix hazardous waste with other hazardous or non-hazardous waste

Types of waste you can treat

The waste codes are those listed in the List of Wastes (LoW) Regulations. You need to make sure your waste fits within the relevant waste code and description.

Waste code Type of waste
130701* Central heating oil only

*hazardous waste

Quantity of waste you can treat

You can treat up to 400 litres of central heating oil over any seven-day period.

Key conditions

The waste must be:

  • stored with secondary containment
  • treated in a location with sealed drainage

Register this exemption

You must register this exemption with the Environment Agency if you will meet the requirements:

Apply for an environmental permit

Definitions

Hazardous waste – see How to classify different types of waste.

Secondary containment – a bund or any other system for preventing waste that has leaked from its main container from escaping from the place where it is stored or treated.

Sealed drainage – a drainage system with an impermeable surface that makes sure that:

  • no liquid will run off the surface apart from via the system
  • except where they may be lawfully discharged, all liquids entering the system are collected in a sealed sump

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