Regulating GCSEs, AS and A levels: guide for schools and colleges

Reviews and appeals

What to do if you think a student's mark is wrong or an exam board hasn't followed its processes properly

The reviews and appeals system for GCSEs, AS and A levels has a number of stages, illustrated in the diagram below.

A diagram of the appeals system for GCSEs, AS and A levels

Our rules set out in detail the way exam boards must carry out each of stages.

Reviews of marking and moderation

Schools and colleges can ask exam boards to review whether there were any errors in the exam board’s:

  • marking of any exam or non-exam assessment
  • moderation of a teacher-marked assessment

Our rules also allow (but do not require) exam boards to accept requests for reviews directly from individual students. It is for each exam board to decide whether, and, if so, in what circumstances, they will accept requests from students. If the exam board chooses not to accept requests directly from students, they must make sure students have an opportunity to appeal against their school’s or college’s decision not to ask for a review.

If a school or college (or a student, where the exam allows them to) requests a review, the exam board must carry one out in line with our rules, and communicate the results of the review to the school, college or student.

Information to help decide whether to ask for a review

Exam boards must make mark schemes available to schools and colleges before their deadline for accepting reviews.

Schools and colleges can also ask exam boards to give them access to marked AS and A level scripts. This can help them decide whether or not to ask for a review.

Exam boards set a deadline for the receipt of requests for returned scripts. When asked by a school or college to do so, by their deadline, they must provide a copy of the student’s marked script in time for the school or college to decide whether to ask for the marking to be reviewed. Where a school or college wants a review completed quickly, due to the timescales imposed by university admissions arrangements, an exam board may offer a different approach.

From summer 2020, exam boards will have to make GCSE scripts available (on request) before their deadline for requesting a review of marking. Some exam boards will do this sooner.

Reviews of exam board marked assessments

When reviewing any assessment it marked itself, an exam board must arrange for a reviewer to consider whether the original marker made any errors when marking an assessment. Reviewers must be specifically trained to undertake reviews, as the process of reviewing the way a question or a paper has been marked is different to marking the question or paper afresh. Exam boards must also monitor the way reviewers undertake reviews, to assure themselves reviewers are complying with our rules and are acting consistently.

A reviewer must:

  1. consider the original marking.
  2. decide whether there were any administrative errors in the marking. An administrative error typically occurs when a marker misses a question or does not properly total the marks for all questions. If any such errors (however large or small) are found they must be corrected and the grade adjusted if necessary.
  3. Check, for each task or question for which there was only 1 possible right answer and therefore mark, whether the right mark was given for the student’s answer. If the marker made an error when marking any such questions the reviewer must remark the question (however large or small the error). The new mark replaces the original one.
  4. Decide, for questions or tasks for which a range of responses can earn credit, whether the original mark could have been given by a marker who properly applied the mark scheme to the answer and exercised his or her academic judgement in a reasonable way. An error is likely to have been made if the reviewer concludes: * that the original mark was unduly lenient or harsh, given the correct application of the mark scheme * a marker who had the appropriate subject knowledge and who had been trained to use the mark scheme would have been acting unreasonably in giving the mark * there was no rational basis for the mark
  5. Re-mark the questions in respect of which the errors were made - however large or small the effect of the error.

If the reviewer finds a marking error, the reviewer’s mark will replace the original mark and the exam board must change the grade if necessary. Any new mark and grade awarded after the review could be higher or lower than that originally given. If the reviewer does not find a marking error the original mark must not be changed. The exam board must tell the school, college or individual student (where the request was accepted from an individual) the outcome of the review.

Occasionally, a reviewer might find 2 or more different errors on review which, when corrected, result in no overall mark change (they cancel each other out).

If the review raises questions about the accuracy of other students’ results the exam board may choose to extend the review to other students’ papers. If it finds errors in the marking of those students’ papers, they may replace the original mark, and the grade if necessary. Any new mark and grade awarded after the review could be higher or lower than that originally given.

Reviews of exam board moderation

A school or college can ask for the outcome of an exam board’s moderation to be reviewed by the exam board. The request must be made on behalf of the whole of the school’s or college’s cohort for that component. The exam board must publish its deadline for receiving such requests and its fees.

The reviewer must consider whether the moderator made any errors. As with exam marking, an error is likely to have been made if the reviewer concludes that:

  • the moderator was unduly lenient or harsh
  • a moderator who had the appropriate subject knowledge and who had been trained to moderate the assessment would have been acting unreasonably in giving the moderation outcome
  • there was no rational basis for the moderation outcome

If the reviewer does not find a moderation error the outcome must not be changed. If the reviewer finds there was an error, the exam board must correct the error and - where necessary - adjust students’ marks and grades.

As with reviews of marking, it is possible that a reviewer might find 2 or more different errors on review which, when corrected, result in no overall mark change (they cancel each other out) for some or all students.

Currently, if a review of moderation finds that a student had been given a grade that was too high, the grade will not be reduced. We are currently reviewing whether this protection should be removed. There is no equivalent protection of a grade that is too high when a similar error is found in other circumstances.

Given the timescales for this review, automatic protection remains in place following reviews of moderation for the 2018 summer exam series.

Requesting reasons for the outcome of a review

A school or college (or student, where the exam board accepted a request from an individual) can ask the exam board to give reasons for the outcome of a review. The exam board must provide the reasons on request. Because the turnaround time for reviews can be important for a student’s progression, we do not currently require exam boards to provide reasons at the same time as they communicate the outcome, as this might delay the outcome being communicated.

From 2020, we will require exam boards to provide reasons automatically (rather than waiting for a school or college to request them), but some exam boards may start providing reasons automatically sooner.

An appeal can be made before the exam board provides reasons, and any deadline for appeals must be at least two weeks after schools and colleges receive reasons.

Exam boards will have their own ways of providing reasons for review outcomes.

Student requests for a review of teacher-marked (internal) assessment

Some assessments that contribute to a GCSE, AS or A level are marked by teachers within schools, rather than by markers employed by exam boards. This is often known as internal assessment.

Our rules require the exam boards to include specific arrangements for students to request reviews of internal assessments in their agreements with schools and colleges.

JCQ has published information about the processes schools and colleges need to put in place.


If a school or college remains concerned about an outcome following a review, it can appeal to the exam board. Appeals can be on the grounds that:

  • an exam board did not apply its procedures consistently or that procedures were not followed properly and fairly
  • in AS and A levels (as well as project qualifications), but not GCSEs, there was an error in the original marking or moderation, or in the review of that marking or moderation - i.e. that
    • an administrative error (such as adding up marks incorrectly) had not been corrected
    • the mark scheme was not properly applied
    • the mark could not have been given by a trained marker, who had appropriate subject knowledge, and who had exercised their academic judgement in a reasonable way

This second ground for appeal was new for 2017. It is being rolled out to GCSEs in English language, English literature and maths in 2018, and to all other GCSEs in 2019.

Appeals can also be made in respect of:

  1. Decisions regarding requests for reasonable adjustments and special consideration.
  2. Decisions regarding actions taken following an investigation into malpractice or maladministration.

The setting of a grade boundary cannot be the subject of an appeal.

An exam board must make sure that those making appeal decisions are competent to do so, have no personal interest in the outcome, and were not involved in the original marking or moderation or the review of the marking or moderation. The final decision must involve at least 1 decision maker who is not connected to the exam board.

An exam board may choose to offer the school or college (or individual student whose appeal was accepted by the exam board) the opportunity to attempt to resolve the disagreement without the need for a full and formal appeal hearing. This is not something we require, and the opportunity for a full appeal must remain available.

The exam procedure review service (EPRS)

Schools and colleges who are unhappy with the result of an appeal can ask Ofqual to review the case through the EPRS. We will look at whether the exam board has followed our rules and its own procedures, and, if not, whether your result is inappropriate.

This service is only available to schools, colleges and private candidates (such as home-schooled students). You can only apply if you have completed an exam board’s appeal process. You need to apply within 21 days of receiving your draft report from the exam board.

We will respond in 10 working days if it is something we can look into. If we decide to hold a hearing, we will let you know the appeal hearing date and how to prepare for it. If we don’t think there should be a hearing we will tell you why and let you respond before we make a final decision.

For more information about EPRS please contact us.

Exam procedure review service
Spring Place
Herald Avenue

Timelines for reviews and appeals

Each exam board must set and publish its own timelines, including the deadlines by which requests for a review or an appeal must be received. The exam boards have set common deadlines for 2018.

Our rules do not specify set dates for the completion of reviews and appeals, but do set out minimum timescales that exam boards must meet. These ensure common, minimum timelines for students, schools and colleges.


Exam boards can charge a fee for reviewing a mark and for considering an appeal. They have to publish the fees they will charge, and be clear about any circumstances in which they will not charge.