Guidance for driving examiners carrying out driving tests (DT1)

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Driver and Vehicle Standards Agency
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Annex 6: Guide to assessment and marking

An annex of DT1 containing a guide to assessment and marking.

6.01: Outcome / competencies (DL25)

Sections 7.44 to 8.05 list the expected outcome/competencies found on the DL25, explaining briefly what is expected of the candidate in that particular aspect of their driving. Examples of the assessment criteria have also been provided as a guide to the four levels of assessment.

This guide cannot include all of the situations that maybe encountered during a driving test. However, the following examples provide an insight into the assessment and marking process.

Note: If the effect is greater than the cause then the effect is marked. For example if a candidate approached a junction too fast and emerged - then the effect would be greater than the cause and although the speed approaching the junction caused the fault only the effect would be marked - junctions observation.

Item 02: Controlled stop - Promptness / Control

Expected outcome / competence

Display a high level of skill in bringing the vehicle to a stop, safely, promptly and under full control avoiding locking the wheels.

Remember, in wet weather it can take twice as long to stop safely.

Assessment Criteria - (example = control)

Driving Fault

Locking the wheels, resulting in skidding for a short distance, but demonstrating effective skills in regaining control.

Serious Fault

Very harsh braking, resulting in locking the wheels. Vehicle continues to skid out of control, with either ineffective or no attempt to regain control

Dangerous Fault

Any situation brought about by the above loss of control that resulted in actual danger to the examiner, candidate, the general public or property.

Item 03: Reverse / left - Reverse with a trailer - Control / Observation

Expected outcome / competence

Ability to control the vehicle accurately whilst reversing to the left.

Effective all round observation throughout the manoeuvre showing consideration to other road users.

Assessment Criteria - (example = observation)

Driving Fault

Demonstrates understanding of rear observations, but is marginally late when taking the required observation.

Serious Fault

Essential observation missed when starting the manoeuvre, unaware of the presence of other road users.

Dangerous Fault

Any situation brought about by the above lack of observation that resulted in actual danger to the examiner, candidate, the general public or property.

Item 04: reverse / right - Control / Observation

Expected outcome / competence

Demonstrate the ability to control the vehicle accurately whilst reversing to the right.

Effective all round observation throughout the manoeuvre is required showing consideration to other road users.

Assessment Criteria - (example = control)

Driving Fault

Touching the kerb, taking the required shunt to correct a loss of control or accuracy.

Serious Fault

Pronounced loss of control resulting in mounting the pavement.

Dangerous Fault

Any situation brought about by the above loss of control that resulted in actual danger to the examiner, candidate, the general public or property.

Item 05: Reverse park road / car park Control / Observation

Expected outcome / competence

Ability to control the vehicle accurately when parking on the road or into a parking bay.

Effective all round observation throughout the manoeuvre showing consideration to other road users.

Assessment Criteria - (example = control)

Driving Fault

Re-positioning required to correct a loss of control or accuracy.

Serious Fault

Excessive re-positioning to correct complete misjudgement and /or significant loss of control. Final parking position parking - outside the bay.

Dangerous Fault

Any situation brought about by the above loss of control that resulted in actual danger to the examiner, candidate, the general public or property.

Item 06: Turn in the road / Motorcycle ‘u’ turn Control / Observation

Expected outcome / competence

Ability to display low speed control and observation skills necessary to carry out this exercise safely with due regard for other road users and pedestrians.

Assessment Criteria - (example = observation)

Driving Fault

Essential observation late when starting the manoeuvre.

Serious Fault

Essential observation missed when starting the manoeuvre, unaware of the presence of other road users.

Dangerous Fault

Any situation brought about by the above lack of observation that resulted in actual danger to the examiner, candidate, the general public or property.

Item 07: Vehicle checks

Expected outcome / competence

Display a basic knowledge of the fundamental safety checks applicable to the vehicle. For example safe fluid levels, lighting and tyre checks.

Assessment Criteria - (examples)

Driving Fault

Category A, B & domestic categories: One driving fault for one or both questions answered incorrectly.

Category C,D,B+E & ADI: One driving fault for each question answered incorrectly.

Category C+E & D+E: One driving fault for each question answered incorrectly.

Serious Fault

Category A, B & domestic categories: not applicable.

Category C,D,B+E & ADI: All five questions answered incorrectly.

Category C+E & D+E: Both questions answered incorrectly.

Dangerous Fault

Not applicable.

Item 08: Taxi manoeuvre Control / Observation

Expected outcome / competence:

Display the ability to turn the car around by whatever means available.

Effective, all round observation and consideration to other road users and pedestrians.

The vehicle should be controlled smoothly making proper use of the clutch, accelerator, and brakes and steering.

Assessment Criteria - (example = observation):

Driving Fault

Essential observation late when starting the manoeuvre.

Serious Fault

Essential observation omitted when starting the manoeuvre, unaware of the presence of other road users.

Dangerous Fault

Any situation brought about by the above lack of observation that resulted in actual danger to the examiner, candidate, the general public or property.

Item 09: Taxi wheelchair

Expected outcome / competence:

The ability to securely erect wheelchair ramps, safely.

Install the wheelchair and an imaginary wheelchair occupant into the vehicle, ensuring that the wheelchair and occupant is secured in readiness for the journey. The entire process should also be reversed. ### Assessment Criteria - (example):

Driving Fault

Driving faults are not recorded for this exercise. This element should be assessed in its entirety.

Serious Fault

Not securing the ramps or wheelchair, or poor handling of the wheelchair, with potential serious risk to the occupant.

Dangerous Fault

Not applicable - as exercise does not involve third party.

This exercise is only applicable to vehicles that are constructed to carry a wheelchair securely

Item 10: Uncoupling / re-coupling

Expected outcome / competence:

Demonstrate the skills necessary when uncoupling and recoupling the vehicle.

Driving the towing vehicle to a designated position prior to recoupling safely.

Assessment Criteria - (example = Uncoupling):

Driving Fault

When uncoupling, landing gear handle was not stored and secured.

Serious Fault - (example = Re-couple)

When re-coupling, landing gear handle was not stored and secured, resulting in a potential risk to other road users when the vehicle is mobile.

Dangerous Fault

Any fault that result in serious damage to the vehicle, candidate or third party.

Item 11: Precautions

Expected outcome / competence:

Before the engine is started, the candidate should make sure that they are comfortably seated and all controls can be safely operated.

Assessment Criteria - (example)

Driving Fault

After stalling at a road junction, handbrake applied but attempts to start the engine whilst in gear.

Serious Fault

At a road junction, engine started whilst in gear, resulting in vehicle entering the new road with potential risk to other road users.

Dangerous Fault

Any situation brought about by a lack of ability to recognise the need to operate or being unable to operate the controls, which directly affects other traffic or pedestrians and causes actual danger.

Item 12: Control - Accelerator / Clutch / Gears / Footbrake / Parking Brake / MC Front Brake / Steering Balance MC / LGV / PCV / Gear Exercise PCV Door Exercise

Expected outcome / competence

This section covers, where appropriate, the safe and controlled use of accelerator, clutch, gears, footbrake, parking brake, and steering. Additional specific control elements apply to the drivers of different vehicle categories. The vehicles controls should be used as smoothly as possible, For e.g.

Making proper use of:

Accelerator and clutch to make a smooth start -the clutch should be depressed before the vehicle stops.

The correct gear should be selected to match the road and traffic conditions.

The vehicle should not be allowed to coast by running on in neutral or with the clutch depressed.

The footbrake should be used smoothly and progressively.

Full use of the parking brake should be used, to prevent the vehicle rolling backwards or forwards.

The vehicle should be steered as smoothly as possible. Steering too early / late, may cause the vehicle to hit the kerb or swing out towards another road user. When a motorcycle is being ridden slowly, a straight line should be maintained. The machine should not wobble towards other vehicles.

Assessment Criteria - (example = gears)

Driving Fault

Incorrect gear selection, resulting in a reduction in vehicle speed with no risk to following vehicles.

Serious Fault

Incorrect gear selection, resulting in a sudden reduction in vehicle speed, causing following traffic to alter speed/or direction.

Dangerous Fault

Any situation brought about by the above control faults, that resulted in actual danger to the examiner, candidate, the general public or property.

Item 13: Move off Safety / Control

Expected outcome / competence

The ability to move off smoothly and safely, on a gradient and at an angle. Taking the correct precautionary observations.

Assessment Criteria - (example = safely)

Driving Fault

Incorrect timing of the blind spot check when moving off with no risk to other road users. For e.g. Checking the blind spot after the vehicle has moved off.

Serious Fault

Moving off into the path of traffic or failing to take observation at all.

Dangerous Fault

Any situation brought about by the above lack of observation, that resulted in actual danger to the examiner, candidate, the general public or property.

Item 14: use of mirrors – m/c rear observation

Expected outcome / competence

Full and effective use of all mirrors fitted to the vehicle.

Mirrors must be checked carefully before signalling, changing direction or changing speed.

Mirrors - Signal - Manoeuvre (MSM) routine should be displayed effectively.

Assessment Criteria - (example = change direction)

Driving Fault

Late use of exterior mirror before changing direction.

Serious Fault

Did not use the exterior mirror before a significant change in direction.

Dangerous Fault

Any situation brought about by the above serious neglect of using the mirrors, that resulted in actual danger to the examiner, candidate, and the general public or property.

Item 15: Signals - Necessary / correctly / timed

Expected outcome / competence

Signals should be given clearly to let other road users know the intended course to be taken.

Signals shown in the Highway Code should only be used, if it would help other road users (including pedestrians).

Signals should be given in good time and cancelled after the manoeuvre has been completed.

Pedestrians should not be beckoned to cross the road.

Assessment Criteria - (example = necessary)

Driving Fault

Signal applied but cancelled before the change in direction was complete.

Serious Fault

Omitted an essential signal to inform other road user of a change in direction.

Dangerous Fault

Any situation brought about by the above fault, that resulted in actual danger to the examiner, candidate, the general public or property.

Item 16: Clearance – obstructions

Expected outcome/ competence

Plenty of room should be allowed when passing stationary vehicles and obstructions.

Ability to display the readiness to be prepared to slow down or stop, as a door may open, a child may run out or a vehicle may pull out without warning.

Assessment Criteria - (example)

Driving Fault

Too close to a stationary vehicle when road conditions allowed the correct clearance.

Serious Fault

Narrowly avoided a collision with a stationary vehicle when road conditions enabled the correct and safe course to be taken.

Dangerous Fault

Any situation brought about by the above fault, due to passing dangerously close to, or striking a stationary vehicle, that resulted in actual danger to the examiner, candidate, the general public or property.

Item: 17 Response to signs and signals – Traffic Signs Road Markings Traffic Lights Traffic Controllers Other road users

Expected outcome/ competence

Ability to understand and be able to react to all traffic signs and road markings.

Acting correctly at traffic lights, checking that the road is clear before proceeding when the green light shows.

All signals should be obeyed given by police officers, traffic wardens and school crossing patrols.

Display the awareness to be able to react to signals given by other road users, including people in charge of animals, and be ready to act accordingly.

Assessment Criteria - (example = traffic lights)

Driving Fault

Late reaction to an amber traffic light, with no effect to safety.

Serious Fault

Failing to comply correctly and promptly with an appropriate traffic light or breaching a legal requirement.

Dangerous Fault

Any situation brought about by the above breach of a legal requirement that resulted in actual danger to the examiner, candidate, the general public or property.

Action (ETA) may be required to avoid a legal requirement being breached.

Item 18: Use of speed

Expected outcome/ competence

Safe and reasonable progress should be made along the road bearing in mind the road, a traffic and weather conditions and the road signs and speed limits.

The vehicle should be able to stop safely, well within the distance you can see to be clear.

Assessment Criteria - (example)

Driving Fault

Drove too fast for the prevailing road and / or traffic conditions for a short period.

Serious Fault

Going too fast for the prevailing road and / or traffic conditions, exceeding speed limits.

Dangerous Fault

Any situation brought about driving far too fast that resulted in actual danger to the examiner, candidate, and the general public or property.

Action (ETA) may be required to avoid a legal requirement being breached. Discretion must obviously be exercised in the degree to be considered acceptable and the tolerance threshold over any speed limit must be quite small.

Item 19: Following distance

Expected outcome/ competence

The vehicle must always be a safe distance between yourself and other vehicles.

On wet or slippery roads it takes much longer to stop.

When the vehicle has stopped in traffic queues, sufficient space should be left to pull out if the vehicle in front has problems.

Assessment Criteria - (example)

Driving Fault

Did not maintain the full separation distance required.

Serious Fault

Drove too close to the vehicle ahead, where the separation distance left little margin for error.

Dangerous Fault

Any situation brought about by dangerously driving too close to the car in front that resulted in actual danger to the examiner, candidate, and the general public or property.

Action (ETA) should be taken as necessary to increase separation distance and so avoid the possibility of a collision.

Item 20: Progress Appropriate Speed Undue Hesitation

Expected outcome/ competence

Candidates should drive at a safe and appropriate speed for the prevailing road and traffic conditions. Speed limits are not target speeds and there will be occasions where candidates need to reduce their speed to deal safely with situations such as narrow residential streets or busy high streets; this should not be considered as a fault.

Assessment Criteria - (example = undue hesitation)

Driving Fault

Lack of judgement, not proceeding when it is safe and correct to do so.

Serious Fault

Stopping and waiting when it is safe and reasonable to proceed.

Dangerous Fault

It is unlikely that undue hesitancy could become dangerous in itself unless it was felt that this created situations that encouraged other road users to put themselves at risk.

Item 21: Junctions – (including roundabouts) Approach Speed Observation Turning Right Turning Left Cutting Corners

Expected outcome/ competence

Ability to judge the correct speed of approach so that the vehicle can enter a junction safely or stop if necessary.

The vehicle should be positioned correctly, using the correct lane.

When turning right, the vehicle should be positioned to the centre of the road as is safe.

The vehicle should not cut the corner when turning right.

When turning left, the vehicle should be over to the left to avoid swinging out.

Watch out for cyclists and motorcyclists coming up on your left and pedestrians who are crossing.

Effective observation must be given before moving into a junction and making sure it is safe before proceeding.

Assessment Criteria - (example = observation)

Driving Fault

A misjudgement of the speed and distance of an approaching vehicle. Safety of other road users was not compromised.

Serious Fault

Not taking effective observation before emerging at junctions, and emerging into the path of other vehicles.

Dangerous Fault

Any situation brought about by the severe lack of effective observation that resulted in actual danger to the examiner, candidate, the general public or property.

Item 22: Judgement – Overtaking Meeting Crossing

Expected outcome/ competence

Overtaking should only be carried out when it is safe to do so.

A sufficient safety margin should be left when other vehicles are being overtaken. Cyclists and motorcyclists need as much space as other vehicles; they can wobble or swerve suddenly.

Do not cut in too quickly after overtaking.

Care should be taken when the width of the road is restricted or when the road narrows. If there is an obstruction on your side or not enough room for two vehicles to pass safely, the vehicle should be prepared to wait and let the approaching vehicles through.

When turning right, other vehicles should not have to stop, slow down or swerve to allow the vehicle to complete its turn.

Assessment Criteria - (example = meeting)

Driving Fault

Late reaction when meeting approaching vehicles.

Serious Fault

Placing other drivers at risk by driving forward when they should have clearly given way.

Dangerous Fault

Any situation brought about by the inability to meet approaching traffic that resulted in actual danger to the examiner, candidate, and the general public or property.

Item 23: Positioning - Normal Driving Lane Discipline

Expected outcome/ competence

The vehicle should be positioned correctly for the intended route.

Where lanes are marked, the vehicle should be positioned to the middle of the lane.

Straddling lane markings should be avoided. Do not change lanes unnecessarily.

Assessment Criteria - (example = normal driving)

Driving Fault

Positioning errors when driving too close to the kerb.

Serious Fault

Persistently driving too close to the kerb, placing pedestrians at risk.

Dangerous Fault

Any situation brought about by driving dangerously close to the kerb that resulted in actual danger to the examiner, candidate, and the general public or property.

Item 24: Pedestrian crossings

Expected outcome/ competence

The ability to recognise the different types of pedestrian crossings and show courtesy and consideration towards pedestrians.

At all crossings the vehicle should slow down and stop if there is anyone on the crossing.

At zebra crossings the vehicle should slow down and be prepared to stop if there is anyone waiting to cross.

Ability to give way to any pedestrians on a pelican crossing when the amber lights are flashing.

Ability to give way to cyclists as well as pedestrians on a toucan crossing and act correctly at puffin crossings.

Assessment Criteria - (example)

Driving Fault

Late to react to flashing amber at a ‘pelican’ crossing.

Serious Fault

Failing to give way to pedestrians who had started to cross at a ‘pelican’ crossing.

Dangerous Fault

Any situation brought about by the above fault that resulted in actual danger to the examiner, candidate, the general public or property.

Item 25: Position/normal stops

Expected outcome/ competence

The ability to choose a safe, legal and convenient place to stop, close to the edge of the kerb, where the vehicle will not obstruct the road and create a hazard.

Display an understanding of - how and where to stop without causing danger to other road users.

Assessment Criteria - (example)

Driving Fault

Stopped, partially blocking a driveway with no inconvenience to other road users.

Serious Fault

Stopped, completely blocking a driveway inconveniencing vehicle attempting to pull out.

Dangerous Fault

Any situation brought about by the above fault that resulted in actual danger to the examiner, candidate, the general public or property.

Item 26: Awareness / planning

Expected outcome/ competence

Display an awareness and consideration for other road users at all times.

Ability to think and plan ahead, judging what other road users are going to do, predicting how their actions will affect the vehicle, and react in good time.

Ability to consider the actions of the more vulnerable groups of road users such as pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists and horse riders.

Anticipating road and traffic conditions, acting in good time, rather than reacting to them at the last moment.

Assessment Criteria - (example)

Driving Fault

Late reaction to what other road users are doing.

Serious Fault

Last minute and sudden reaction to other road users compromising their safety.

Dangerous Fault

Any situation brought about by the above fault that resulted in actual danger to the examiner, candidate, and the general public or property.

Item 27: Ancillary controls

Expected outcome/ competence

Ability to understand the function of all the controls and switches, especially those that have a bearing on road safety.

These include indicators, lights, windscreen wipers, demisters and heaters.

Ability to find these controls and operate them correctly, when necessary, without looking down or causing a loss of control.

Assessment Criteria - (example)

Driving Fault

Not completely familiar with the location and operation of controls, control of the vehicle was compromised but with no effect on road safety.

Serious Fault

Unaware of location and operation of the controls resulting in a serious loss of vehicle control, road safety compromised.

Dangerous Fault

Any situation brought about by the above fault that resulted in actual danger to the examiner, candidate, the general public or property.

Item 01a: Eyesight

Expected outcome / competence

Read, in good daylight, (with the aid of glasses or contact lenses if worn) a registration mark containing letters and figures 79.4mm high fixed to a motor vehicle at a distance of 20.5 metres.

Or a registration mark containing letters 79mm, high fixed to a motor vehicle at a distance of 20 metres. (12.3 metres for category K).

Assessment Criteria - (example)

Driving fault

Not applicable

Serious fault

Unable to meet the requirements of the eyesight test.

Dangerous fault

Not applicable

Item 01b: Highway code / safety

Expected outcome / competence

Candidates who have not taken a separate theory test, for example to obtain a licence for a tractor or other specialist vehicle, will be asked questions on the Highway Code and other related motoring matters. Candidates taking a Passenger Carrying Vehicle (PCV) test should know the location of, and be able to operate, safety components such as a fire extinguisher, fuel cut-off switch and emergency door.

Assessment Criteria - (example)

Driving Fault

Of the 5 questions asked/ 6 traffic signs shown, a proportion are incorrect.

Serious Fault

All questions and traffic signs incorrect.

Dangerous Fault

Not a moving exercise therefore not possible to satisfy this criteria.

01: Purpose

The purpose of this guide is to explain the assessment criteria and recording of faults, under the 27-outcome / competency headings on the driving examiners marking sheet (DL25).

Although an attempt has been made to explain assessment in theory, it should be remembered assessment is a knowledge and practical based skill.

This document does not attempt to describe every fault that could occur during a driving test. Examiners should apply the assessment principles in which they have been trained.

The training of this skill is delivered at Cardington to a high standard by experienced examiner / trainers. Assessment is maintained through infield development and supervision supporting DVSA’s quality assurance regime.

Applying a robust quality assurance system preserves the quality of assessment skills of all driving examiners in conducting a professional, consistent and uniform driving test.

02: Assessment

Examiners are trained to assess driving tests to a uniform standard; the Chief Driving Examiner (CDE) sets these standards. An assessment of the ability to drive safely is made by taking direct observation of the candidates driving, assessed against a set of outcomes/competencies found on the DL25. As such, assessing a person’s competence to drive is based on the making of safety decisions and vehicle control.

03 Fault assessment – defined outcomes

Before any fault identification and analysis can be carried out, the outcome must first be defined. Any deviation from the defined outcome can then be seen as a fault. The weight or severity of the fault will depend on the extent of the deviation, and also the circumstances at that time. The fault can range from ‘not worthy of recording’ to ‘dangerous’.

Example of Defined Outcomes

At every junction the candidate should use the MSM / PSL Routine.

Mirror Signal Manoeuvre(MSM)

M - Check in the mirror to assess the speed and position of the vehicles behind

S - Signal clearly and in good time

M - Manoeuvre - use PSL

Position Speed Look (PSL)

P - Position your vehicle correctly and in good time. Early positioning lets other road users know what you are going to do

S - Adjust your speed as necessary

L - Look for other traffic when you reach a point from which you can see. Access the situation. Decide to go or wait. Act accordingly

04: Definition of driving faults - assessment parameters

Fault identified - not worthy (not worthy of recording).

Any insignificant deviation from the defined outcome that does not compromise safety or can be a matter of finesse.

For example - Dry steering, sequential gear changes, not pressing the button on top of the handbrake when applying it.

Fault identified - Driving Fault - (not an immediate fail).

Low Risk - Any sufficient deviation from the defined outcome that does not compromise safety, or can be a matter of control - to justify a fault being recorded.

For example - the candidate took observation before emerging at the junction. However, they misjudged the distance of an approaching vehicle, causing it to slow down, safety was not compromised.

(Sixteen or more of these faults would result in failure of the test.)

There can however be occasions when one specific driving fault could by constant repetition, be regarded as serious and therefore a significant risk; for example when a candidate habitually fails to take mirror observation when appropriate.

Fault identified - Serious fault - (entails immediate failure)

High Risk - Significant deviation from the defined outcome with safety, control and/or legal requirement breached.

For example - the candidate did not take effective observation before emerging at the junction, unaware of any other road user who may have been expected to be there.

Fault identified - Dangerous fault - (entails immediate fail).

Actual Danger - Safety, control and/or legal requirement breached that would have caused actual danger.

For example - the candidate did not take effective observation before emerging at the junction completely misjudged both speed and distance of an approaching vehicle. The examiner had to take appropriate action to avoid a collision.

Examiners, may have to take ‘action’ when it becomes necessary to do so in the interest of public safety, including their own and that of the candidate. Such intervention may be either - VERBAL (ETA-V) or PHYSICAL (ETA-P).

05: Location of faults – (Appendix a)

Having identified and assessed the fault it is important that the fault is recorded under the associated ‘outcome’ headings on the DL25. There are a number of faults that can occur during a driving test that initially may not appear appropriate to the relevant 27 headings. As such, to help with uniformity a ‘Guide to locating and recording of faults’ has been provided in Appendix A.

A general guide to help locate the fault to the relevant outcome is to determine the ‘cause’.

CAUSE = Location on the (DL25).

Ask yourself

‘What was the Fault’?

‘How did the fault happen’?

‘What caused the fault to occur’? EFFECT = Assessment.

Ask yourself

‘To what degree was the deviation from the defined outcome’?

‘Is safety or control compromised’?

‘Has a legal requirement been breached’?

‘What happened because of this fault’?

Example of (Cause / Effect) - Stopping

CAUSE = (Clutch)

Candidate attempts to pull up on the left at a safe and convenient place. The correct pressure is applied to the footbrake at the appropriate time. However, just before the vehicle stops, the clutch pedal was not pushed down to disengage the engine from the driving wheels causing the car to stall.

EFFECT = (Driving Fault)

Because the clutch pedal was not pushed down to disengage the engine from the driving wheels the car stalled. As such, the control of the vehicle was compromised. Under the circumstances at the time, the correct assessment of this deviation from the defined outcome is a ‘driving fault’.

Having identified the fault and assessed that it is worthy of recording, an oblique stroke is made on the DL25 under the relevant outcome/competence.

07: A guide to locating and recording faults on the DL25

The information contained within this document is intended to be used as a guide to the location of fault markings on the DL25 and to ensure uniformity. It is not intended as a guide to the assessment of faults. Driving Examiners of all grades were consulted and helped to prepare this document. It is not definitive and its content may be subject to alterations to reflect changing regulations and circumstances.

1.(a) Eyesight

  • read registration incorrectly for the fourth time using the tape.

1.(b) Highway code / Safety

  • incorrect answers to questions (Category F/G/H) / (Category D, D+E, D1)

2. Controlled stop

  • late or slow reaction to the signal
  • applying the handbrake before stopping
  • skidding out of control
  • missing the footbrake pedal
  • letting go of the steering wheel

3. Reverse left / with trailer

(Recorded when reverse gear is selected)

Control:

  • poor co-ordination of controls
  • stalling
  • mounting the pavement or kerb
  • turning the steering wheel the wrong way
  • going wide after the corner
  • finishing at an acute angle
  • scrubbing-brushing-touching the kerb
  • taking an excessive amount of time to complete the manoeuvre.

Observation:

  • no blind spot checks
  • no observation at or before the point of turn
  • excessive use of the door mirrors
  • not looking directly behind
  • not reacting to passing or approaching vehicles
  • not reacting to pedestrians
  • waiting unnecessarily for other roads users

4. Reverse right

  • as Reverse Left

5. Reverse park

(Recorded when reverse gear is selected) Control:

  • poor co-ordination of controls
  • scrubbing/brushing the kerb
  • unnecessary shunting backwards and forwards
  • getting too close to the object car
  • mounting the pavement
  • turning the steering wheel the wrong way
  • parking too far from the kerb
  • stalling
  • not completing within two car lengths
  • finishing at an acute angle to the kerb

Car Park:

  • poor co-ordination of controls
  • ending up straddling two bays
  • unnecessary shunting forwards and backwards
  • turning the steering wheel the wrong way
  • stalling

Observation:

  • no blind spot checks
  • relying too much or entirely on the mirrors
  • ineffective observation
  • looking but not reacting to other vehicles or pedestrians
  • waiting too long for other users in the car park.

6: Turn in the road

Control:

  • poor co-ordination of controls
  • mounting the pavement or kerb
  • stalling
  • turning the wheel the wrong way
  • taking an excessively long time to complete the manoeuvre

Observation:

  • no blind spot checks
  • not looking to the left or right before reversing or pulling forwards
  • not looking directly behind
  • not reacting to passing or approaching vehicles
  • not reacting to pedestrians
  • waiting unnecessarily for other road users

7: Vehicle checks

1 or 2 questions incorrect = 1 driving fault

8: Taxi manoeuvre

  • examples of faults on this exercise will depend on the candidate’s choice of how they wish to turn the vehicle around (see other manoeuvres)

9: Taxi wheelchair

  • wheelchair brakes not applied
  • wheelchair falling off ramps
  • wheelchair belts / harness not used or not secured

10: Uncouple/ recouple

11: Precautions

  • leaving in gear with the clutch up and starting the engine

12: Control

Accelerator:

  • uncontrolled use
  • excessive revs

Clutch:

  • not depressing the clutch pedal before stopping
  • uncontrolled engagement after changing gear

Gears:

  • clutch Coasting
  • looking down when changing gear resulting loss of steering control
  • selecting the wrong gear for the road and traffic conditions

Footbrake:

  • uncontrolled use resulting in pulling up too early or too late
  • late or harsh braking
  • missing the brake pedal completely

Handbrake:

  • applying whilst in motion
  • not applying where necessary resulting in rolling forwards or backwards
  • allowing the vehicle to ‘creep’ with an automatic
  • unable to release fully

Steering:

  • unable to maintain a steady course in normal driving
  • ‘Swan Neck’ turns when turning right
  • at a normal stop, mounting and dismounting the kerb
  • not following the contour of the kerb at a bell mouth junction

13: Move off Safely

  • no blind spot checks / incorrectly timed checks
  • moving away unsafely, Blind spot check only over the left shoulder
  • pulling away with the left signal on

Under Control:

  • stalling
  • repeated stalling
  • moving off with the handbrake applied
  • rolling backwards when attempting to move off
  • not engaging a gear and attempting to move off
  • attempting to pull away in too high a gear

14: Use of mirrors well before Signalling/Changing direction/Stopping

  • not using the exterior mirrors when essential
  • using the mirrors but not reacting to the information
  • not using the mirrors at all
  • pulling up with no mirror checks
  • increasing speed with no mirror checks
  • late use of mirrors

15: Signals

Where necessary:

  • omitting to re-apply when it self cancels
  • omitting to give a signal where necessary

Correctly:

  • signalling unnecessarily
  • wrong arm signals
  • omitting to cancel after use
  • incorrect (i.e. left for right, right for left)
  • flashing the headlights at another driver to proceed or turn
  • having the hazard lights on whilst on the move
  • unnecessary use of the horn
  • beckoning pedestrians

Properly Timed:

  • giving late exit signals at roundabouts
  • arriving at a junction and then signalling
  • signalling after starting the manoeuvre
  • signalling far too early or too late
  • misleading signal before intended left and right turn

16: Clearance to obstructions

  • driving too close to stationary vehicles and obstructions

17: Response to signs and signals

Traffic signs:

  • going to the wrong side of a keep left sign
  • non compliance with a stop sign
  • non-compliance with a No Entry sign
  • driving in a Bus Lane when times on the sign prohibit its use
  • not complying with Mandatory signs

Road markings:

  • unnecessarily crossing the solid white centre lines
  • not conforming to directional arrows
  • stopping in a yellow box junction when the exit is not clear

Traffic lights:

  • waiting at a green filter light when safe to proceed
  • waiting to turn right in a junction, with red repeater light on opposite side and safe to proceed
  • not conforming to a red light
  • late reaction to the amber traffic light
  • remaining at the stop line when safe to move forwards
  • stopping beyond the solid white line going into an area designated for cyclists

Traffic controller:

  • police
  • traffic warden
  • school crossing patrol
  • other persons directing traffic

Other road users:

  • not reacting appropriately to the signals given by other road users

18: Use of speed

  • driving too fast for prevailing road
  • traffic and weather conditions
  • breaking the speed limit

19: Following distance

  • getting too close to moving vehicles
  • pulling up too close to vehicle ahead

20: Progress

  • driving at an appropriate speed for the road and traffic conditions
  • holding up following traffic

Avoiding undue hesitation:

  • stopping unnecessarily at junctions (except traffic light controlled junctions - see 17) and other hazards
  • not proceeding when it is safe to do so at junctions

21: Junctions

Approach speed:

  • approaching too fast
  • approaching too slow

Observation:

  • not taking effective observation before emerging
  • looking both ways but still emerging to affect other road users

Turning right:

  • positioning too far to the left
  • positioning too far to the right
  • on major to minor stopping short of the turning point
  • incorrect position before turning right

Turning left:

  • positioning too far to the right or too close to the kerb
  • swinging out prior to reaching the corner
  • positioning in an unmarked inappropriate lane to turn left

Cutting Right Corners:

  • cutting corners, from major to minor roads

22: Judgement when Overtaking

  • cutting in after overtaking
  • attempting to overtake in a hazardous place
  • unsafe overtaking

Meeting Traffic:

  • failure to show proper judgement when meeting approaching traffic

Crossing Traffic:

  • turning right across the path of oncoming road users

23: Positioning

Normal driving:

  • too close to the kerb
  • too far from the kerb
  • not using bus or cycle lanes when the times allow its use
  • on dual carriageways driving in the right hand lane
  • cutting across the normal road position when going ahead at roundabouts

Lane discipline:

  • straddling marked lanes when going ahead
  • straddling a bus lane

24: Pedestrian crossings

  • approaching too fast
  • not reacting to the lights at a pedestrian controlled crossing
  • pulling away well before the crossing is clear of pedestrians
  • not stopping when necessary
  • beckoning pedestrians to cross

25: Position for normal stops

  • normal stop not made in a safe position
  • both nearside wheels on the kerb/pavement
  • over a driveway
  • at a bus stop
  • too far from the kerb
  • too near to a junction
  • opposite other parked vehicles

26: Awareness and planning

  • failure to judge what other road users are going to do and react accordingly

27: Ancillary controls

  • failure to use ancillary controls when necessary
  • unable to operate controls
  • not able to locate or operate essential ancillary controls
  • loss of control whilst operating ancillary controls