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Organic wastes are currently blended to form Substitute Liquid Fuel (SLF) for use in cement kilns. Although subject to strict regulation by the Environment Agency, there are concerns relating to the use of SLF. Chem Systems was commissioned to review the position of the SLF route in the environmental hierarchy using Life Cycle Assessment methodology. A further aspect of the study was whether SLF draws material from recycling or hazardous waste incinerators for economic reasons.