A literature review to understand possible factors that affect marking reliability in GCSE and A level exams.
Ref: Ofqual/14/5380 PDF, 1.08MB, 70 pages
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Perhaps the single most consistent underlying factor identified in all the work that relates to the effect of mark schemes on reliability is the need for clarity and avoiding unnecessary complications. This applies whether the mark scheme in question is for an objective item with a single correct answer or a levels-based scheme for an extended piece of writing.
It is, however, important to realise that the pursuit of simplicity should not involve a threat to validity, a point made in several of the relevant papers. Some authors argue for a clear statement of the principle behind the award of credit rather than attempting to anticipate the entire outcome space.