Our review was based on four research questions:
Who marks assessments in other countries?
Do any jurisdictions use double and multiple marking? Is there any evidence as to the rationale behind or impact of this? How is it managed, and is it targeted at certain subjects and/or types of questions?
Do any jurisdictions use on-screen marking? If so, do they use item-level marking? Is there any evidence as to the impact of this?
How do other jurisdictions’ quality assurance of exam marking compare with our own? This includes how the quality of the interpretation of the mark scheme is monitored, how clerical errors are eliminated and how inter-rater reliability is monitored and reported.
To allow a direct comparison with the marking of GCSEs and A levels, the primary focus of the review was externally marked qualifications that students take at around age 16 or 18 (the same age as they take GCSEs or A levels in England).