DFID commissioned this study to better understand the regional dimensions of poverty in Nepal. The study had three main parts. The first set out to establish a measure of chronic poverty and vulnerability based on indicators included in existing major datasets in Nepal. The second used these measures to explore the trends between regions as well as over time. The third set out to better understand the underlying causes of chronic poverty and vulnerability in the Mid and Far West (M&FW) regions. This summary report presents the major findings from this study. Details on the analysis of poverty and vulnerability and the methods used have been included as an annex to this summary. Further details can be found in the accompanying background reports.