What is a proscribed organisation?
Under the Terrorism Act 2000, the Home Secretary may proscribe an organisation if they believe it is concerned in terrorism, and it is proportionate to do. For the purposes of the Act, this means that the organisation:
- commits or participates in acts of terrorism
- prepares for terrorism
- promotes or encourages terrorism (including the unlawful glorification of terrorism)
- is otherwise concerned in terrorism
What is meant by ‘terrorism’ in the proscription context?
“Terrorism” as defined in the Act, means the use or threat of action which: involves serious violence against a person; involves serious damage to property; endangers a person’s life (other than that of the person committing the act); creates a serious risk to the health or safety of the public or section of the public or is designed seriously to interfere with or seriously to disrupt an electronic system.
The use or threat of such action must be designed to influence the government or an international governmental organisation or to intimidate the public or a section of the public, and must be undertaken for the purpose of advancing a political, religious, racial or ideological cause.
What determines whether proscription is proportionate?
If the statutory test is met, the Home Secretary will consider whether to exercise their discretion to proscribe the organisation. In considering whether to exercise this discretion, the Home Secretary will take into account other factors, including:
- the nature and scale of an organisation’s activities
- the specific threat that it poses to the UK
- the specific threat that it poses to British nationals overseas
- the extent of the organisation’s presence in the UK
- the need to support other members of the international community in the global fight against terrorism.
Section 3(6) of the Terrorism Act 2000 allows the Home Secretary to specify by order that an alternative name or alias is to be treated as another name for a proscribed organisation listed in Schedule 2 to the Act. The Home Secretary can make an order where they believe the proscribed organisation is operating under that alternative name or that an organisation operating under a name not included in Schedule 2 is for all practical purposes the same as the proscribed organisation.
The use of an alternative name which has not been formally recognised in an order does not prevent the police and Crown Prosecution Service from taking action against an individual for proscription offences. For a successful prosecution, it is necessary to demonstrate that (1) the organisation in question, whatever name it professes to be operating under, is for all practical purposes the same as the proscribed organisation listed in Schedule 2; and (2) that the person in question has committed one of the proscription offences in relation to that organisation.
Proscription makes it a criminal offence to:
- belong, or profess to belong, to a proscribed organisation in the UK or overseas (section 11 of the Act)
- invite support for a proscribed organisation (the support invited need not be material support, such as the provision of money or other property, and can also include moral support or approval) (section 12(1))
- express an opinion or belief that is supportive of a proscribed organisation, reckless as to whether a person to whom the expression is directed will be encouraged to support a proscribed organisation (section 12(1A))
- arrange, manage or assist in arranging or managing a meeting in the knowledge that the meeting is to support or further the activities of a proscribed organisation, or is to be addressed by a person who belongs or professes to belong to a proscribed organisation (section 12(2)); or to address a meeting if the purpose of the address is to encourage support for, or further the activities of, a proscribed organisation (section 12(3))
- wear clothing or carry or display articles in public in such a way or in such circumstances as to arouse reasonable suspicion that the individual is a member or supporter of a proscribed organisation (section 13)
- publish an image of an item of clothing or other article, such as a flag or logo, in the same circumstances (section 13(1A))
What are the penalties for a proscription offence?
The penalties for proscription offences under sections 11 and 12 are a maximum of 14 years in prison and/or a fine. The maximum penalty for a section 13 offence is 6 months in prison and/or a fine not exceeding £5,000.
Do the proscription offences apply to all designated and proscribed organisations?
No, the proscription offences set out in sections 11 to 13 of the Terrorism Act 2000 (as amended by the Counter Terrorism and Border Security Act 2019) apply in relation to proscribed organisations i.e. those specified in Schedule 2 to the Terrorism Act 2000. These offences do not apply in relation to groups subject to other designation or sanction regimes such as an asset freeze in the UK as a result of a UN Al Qa’ida, EU CP 931 or UK domestic, asset freeze unless that entity is also proscribed in the UK.
How does proscription help disrupt terrorism?
In addition to the proscription offences, proscription can support other disruptive activity including the use of immigration powers such as exclusion, prosecution for other offences, encouraging removal of on-line material, messaging and EU asset freezes. The resources of a proscribed organisation are terrorist property and are, therefore, liable to be seized.
Do the offences relating to a proscribed organisation apply overseas?
Yes. The section 11 offence of membership of a proscribed organisation has had extra-territorial jurisdiction since 2006. From 12 April 2019, the section 12 and 13 offences of inviting or recklessly expressing support for a proscribed organisation, and the offences of displaying or publishing articles, also have extra-territorial jurisdiction for British nationals and UK residents. The offences do not prevent non-governmental organisations interacting with proscribed organisations overseas.
Is it an offence to arrange or manage a meeting relating to a proscribed organisation?
Section 12(2) of the Terrorism Act 2000 provides that it is an offence to arrange or manage (or assist in the arrangement or management) of a meeting in the knowledge that it is to support a proscribed organisation, to further the activities of a proscribed organisation, or is to be addressed by a person who belongs or professes to belong to a proscribed organisation. It is also an offence under section 12(3) to address a meeting if the purpose of the address is to encourage support for a proscribed organisation or to further its activities. However, section 12(4) provides a defence, in the case of a private meeting addressed by a member of a proscribed organisation, if a person can prove that they had no reasonable cause to believe that the address would support the proscribed organisation or advance its terrorist activities.
Further, the explanatory notes to the Terrorism Act 2000 (which are designed to provide clarification of the legislation’s intent and can be taken into account by the prosecuting authorities when considering whether prosecution is in the public interest and by courts in interpreting Parliament’s intentions) explain that the defence in section 12(4) is intended to permit the arrangement of ‘genuinely benign’ meetings. A ‘genuinely benign’ meeting is interpreted as a meeting at which the terrorist activities of the group are not promoted or encouraged, for example, a meeting designed to encourage a designated group to engage in a peace process or facilitate delivery of humanitarian aid where this does not involve knowingly transferring assets to a designated organisation.
The Home Secretary will consider deproscription on application only. Section 4 of the Terrorism Act 2000 provides that the organisation or any person affected by a proscription can submit a signed, written application to the Home Secretary requesting that they consider whether a specified organisation should be removed from the list of proscribed organisations. Proscription decisions in relation to Northern Ireland are a matter for the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, therefore deproscription applications for Northern Ireland related groups should be made to the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland. The application must set out the grounds on which it is made. The precise requirements are contained in the Proscribed Organisations (Applications for Deproscription etc) Regulations 2006 (SI 2006/2299).
The Home Secretary or Secretary of State for Northern Ireland is required to determine the application within 90 days from the day after it is received. If the deproscription application is refused the applicant may appeal to the Proscribed Organisations Appeals Commission (POAC). The Commission will allow an appeal if it considers that the decision to refuse deproscription was flawed, applying judicial review principles. Either party can seek leave to appeal the POAC’s decision at the Court of Appeal.
If the Home Secretary or Secretary of State for Northern Ireland agrees to deproscribe the organisation, or following a successful appeal POAC orders the Secretary of State to lay an order before Parliament for the organisation to be deproscribed it voted into force, the organisation will be removed from the list of proscribed organisations. The Order is subject to the affirmative resolution procedure so must be agreed by both the House of Commons and the House of Lords.
Section 10 of the Terrorism Act 2000 provides that evidence of anything done in relation to a deproscription application is not admissible as evidence in proceedings against an individual for an offence under that Act.
Mujaheddin e Khalq (MeK)
The MEK, also known as the Peoples’ Mujaheddin of Iran (PMOI), was removed from the list of proscribed groups in June 2008 as a result of judgments of the POAC and the Court of Appeal.
International Sikh Youth Federation (ISYF)
ISYF was removed from the list of proscribed groups in March 2016 following receipt of an application to deproscribe the organisation.
Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin (HIG)
HIG was removed from the list of proscribed groups in December 2017 following receipt of an application to deproscribe the organisation.
Libyan Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG)
LIFG was removed from the list of proscribed groups in November 2019 following receipt of an application to deproscribe the organisation.
There are also domestic and international financial asset freezing sanctions regimes that involve the listing of terrorist organisations and individuals. The current consolidated list of asset freeze targets designated by the United Nations, European Union and United Kingdom, under current financial sanctions regimes is available on GOV.UK.
List of proscribed international terrorist groups
- 79 terrorist organisations are proscribed under the Terrorism Act 2000
- 14 organisations in Northern Ireland that were proscribed under previous legislation
The information about the groups’ aims was given to Parliament when they were proscribed.
Users should bear in mind that there is no universal standard for transliterating Arabic and other languages into Latin characters. Therefore, the spelling of the names of proscribed organisations appearing in other publications may differ slightly from that given in this list.
17 November Revolutionary Organisation (N17) - Proscribed March 2001
Aims to highlight and protest at what it deems to be imperialist and corrupt actions, using violence. Formed in 1974 to oppose the Greek military Junta, its stance was initially anti-Junta and anti-US, which it blamed for supporting the Junta.
Abdallah Azzam Brigades, including the Ziyad al-Jarrah Battalions (AAB) - Proscribed June 2014
AAB is an Islamist militant group aligned with Al Qa’ida and the global jihad movement, currently fighting in Syria and Lebanon. The group began operating in Pakistan in 2009. The Lebanese branch uses the name the Ziyad al Jarrah Battalion and is named after Lebanese 9/11 hijacker Ziyad al Jarrah who participated in the hijacking and crash of United Flight 93.
AAB has increased its operational pace since the onset of the Syrian insurgency, claiming responsibility for a rocket attack launched from Lebanon into northern Israel in August 2013. On 19 November 2013, AAB claimed responsibility for a double suicide bombing outside the Iranian embassy in Beirut, which killed at least 22 people and wounded over 140.
On 19 February 2014, the group’s media wing, the Al-Awzaey Media Foundation, announced on Twitter and YouTube that the group claimed responsibility for two suicide bombings near the Iranian cultural centre in Beirut killing 11 and wounding 130, in revenge for actions by Iran and Hizballah, in Lebanon and Syria.
The group has threatened to launch further terrorist attacks and has demanded that the Lebanese government free imprisoned jihadists. It has also threatened attacks on Western targets in the Middle East.
Abu Nidal Organisation (ANO) - Proscribed March 2001
ANO’s principal aim is the destruction of the state of Israel. It is also hostile to ‘reactionary’ Arab regimes and states supporting Israel.
Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) - Proscribed March 2001
The precise aims of the ASG are unclear, but its objectives appear to include the establishment of an autonomous Islamic state in the Southern Philippine island of Mindanao.
Ajnad Misr (Soldiers of Egypt) - Proscribed November 2014
The group is a jihadist group based in Egypt and is believed to be a splinter group of Ansar Bayt al Maqdis (ABM), which was proscribed on 4 April. Ajnad Misr has stated that it seeks to protect Egyptian Muslims and avenge alleged abuse against them by the Egyptian security services.
Ajnad Misr is believed to have been active since 20 November 2013, when it attacked an Egyptian checkpoint. It announced its establishment on 23 January 2014 and has claimed responsibility a number of attacks on Egyptian security forces in a military campaign. The claims were made in three communiqués posted on its Facebook and Twitter accounts on 23 January, 24 January, and 31 January. On the jihadi forum al-Fida’, Ansar Bayt al Maqdis, referred to Ajnad Misr in a communiqué issued on January 28, expressing support for the group and identifying it as being responsible for two attacks in Greater Cairo in January. Ajnad Misr has claimed responsibility for the bombing at Cairo University on 2 April that resulted in the death of a policeman and injuries to three others.
Al-Ashtar Brigades including Saraya al-Ashtar, Wa’ad Allah Brigades, Islamic Allah Brigades, Imam al-Mahdi Brigades and al-Haydariyah Brigades - Proscribed December 2017
The group is a Shia militant extremist organisation that was established during 2013. Its aim is to overthrow the Bahraini al-Khalifa ruling family through violent militant operations. It lists the ruling al-Khalifa family, Bahrain security forces and Saudi Arabia as targets for attacks. The group has been responsible for numerous attacks since being established, which it has claimed responsibility for, including:
- on 1 January 2017 – 10 inmates (all convicted of terrorism offences in Bahrain) were broken out of Jaw Reformation and Rehabilitation Centre, which led to the death of a police officer
- an IED attack in a bus station in Sitrah, which was claimed by the group under the name Wa’ad Allah Brigades on 7 February 2017
- an attack on a police vehicle near the village of al Qadeem on 7 July 2017
The group has promoted violent activity against the Bahraini government, as well as the British, American and Saudi Arabian governments on social media.
Al-Gama’at al-Islamiya (GI) - Proscribed March 2001
The main aim of GI is to overthrow the Egyptian government and replace it with an Islamic state through all means, including the use of violence. Some members also want the removal of Western influence from the Arab world.
Al Ghurabaa - Proscribed July 2006
Al Ghurabaa / The Saved Sect is an Islamist group which seeks to establish an Islamic Caliphate ruled by Shariah law. The group first emerged as Al Muhajiroun in the UK, in 1996, led by Omar Bakri Muhammed, who then publicly disbanded the organisation in 2004. The organisation reformed in 2004 under the names Al Ghurabaa and the Saved Sect. While the Group has some links to groups overseas, it is based and operates within the UK.
The government laid Orders, in January 2010 and November 2011, which provide that “Al Muhajiroun”, “Islam4UK”, “Call to Submission”, “Islamic Path”, “London School of Sharia” and “Muslims Against Crusades” should be treated as alternative names for the organisation which is already proscribed under the names Al Ghurabaa and The Saved Sect.
The government laid an Order, in June 2014 recognising “Need4Khilafah”, the “Shariah Project” and the “Islamic Dawah Association” as the same as the organisation proscribed as Al Ghurabaa and The Saved Sect, which is also known as “Al Muhajiroun”.
Al Ittihad Al Islamia (AIAI) - Proscribed October 2005
The main aims of AIAI are to establish a radical Sunni Islamic state in Somalia, and to regain the Ogaden region of Ethiopia as Somali territory via an insurgent campaign. Militant elements within AIAI are suspected of having aligned themselves with the ‘global jihad’ ideology of Al Qa’ida, and to have operated in support of Al Qa’ida in the East Africa region.
Al Murabitun - Proscribed April 2014
Al Murabitun resulted from a merger of two Al Qa’ida in the Maghreb (AQ-M) splinter groups that are active in Mali and Algeria, the Movement for the Unity and Jihad in West Africa (MUJWA) and Mokhtar Belmokhtar’s group, the Al Mulathamine Battalion which included the commando element ‘Those Who Sign in Blood’. The merger was announced in a public statement in August 2013.
Al Murabitun aspires to unite Muslims from “the Nile to the Atlantic” and has affirmed its loyalty to al-Qaida leader Ayman al-Zawahiri and the emir of the Afghan Taleban, Mullah Omar.
As at 3 April 2014, the group has not claimed responsibility for any terrorist attacks since the merger but both precursor groups have participated in a number of terrorist attacks and kidnapping for ransom during the past 13 months. Belmokhtar’s group was responsible for the attack against the In Amenas gas facility in January 2013 that resulted in the death of over thirty people including Britons. In May 2013 the two groups targeted a military barracks in Agadez, Niger and a uranium mine in Arlit which supplies French nuclear reactors. The suicide attack in Agadez resulted in the deaths of at least twenty people.
Despite previously separating themselves from AQM, citing leadership issues and the desire to expand their control, both precursor groups continued to cooperate and fight alongside AQM fighters in Mali and other regions of West Africa. This activity has continued since the merger.
Al-Mukhtar Brigades including Saraya al-Mukhtar - Proscribed December 2017
The group is a Shia militant organisation that was established during 2013. It lists the al-Khalifa ruling family, Bahrain security forces and Saudi Arabia as targets for attacks. The group’s activities include the continued promotion and glorification of terrorism via social media throughout 2017.
Al Qa’ida (AQ) - Proscribed March 2001
Inspired and led by Usama Bin Laden, its aims are the expulsion of Western forces from Saudi Arabia, the destruction of Israel and the end of Western influence in the Muslim world.
The government laid Orders, in July 2013 December 2016 and May 2017, which provided that the “al-Nusrah Front (ANF)”, “Jabhat al-Nusrah li-ahl al Sham”, “Jabhat Fatah al-Sham” and “Hay’at Tahrir al-Sham” should be treated as alternative names for the organisation which is already proscribed under the name Al Qa’ida.
Al Shabaab - Proscribed March 2010
Al Shabaab is an organisation based in Somalia which has waged a violent campaign against the Somali Transitional Federal government and African Union peacekeeping forces since 2007, employing a range of terrorist tactics including suicide bombings, indiscriminate attacks and assassinations. Its principal aim is the establishment of a fundamentalist Islamic state in Somalia, but the organisation has publicly pledged its allegiance to Usama Bin Laden and has announced an intention to combine its campaign in the Horn of Africa with Al Qa’ida’s aims of global jihad.
Ansar Al Islam (AI) - Proscribed October 2005
AI is a radical Sunni Salafi group from northeast Iraq around Halabja. The group is anti-Western and opposes the influence of the US in Iraqi Kurdistan and the relationship of the KDP and PUK to Washington. AI has been involved in operations against Multi-National Forces-Iraq (MNF-I).
Ansar al-Sharia-Benghazi (AAS-B) which translates as the Partisans of Islamic Law - Proscribed November 2014
AAS-B is a Sunni Islamist militia group that has an anti-Western rhetoric and advocates the implementation of strict Sharia law. AAS-B came into being in 2011, after the fall of the Gaddafi regime. The group was led by Mohammed Ali al-Zahawi and Ahmed Abu Khattalah is an AAS-B senior leader.
AAS-B is involved in terrorist attacks against civilian targets, frequent assassinations, and attempted assassinations of security officials and political actors in eastern Libya. On 11 September 2012, members of AAS-B took part in the attack against the U.S. Special Mission and Annex in Benghazi, Libya, killing the US ambassador and three other Americans. In September 2012, Mohammed Ali al-Zahawi, in an interview openly stated his support for Al Qa’ida’s strategy but denied any links to the organisation. He also confirmed AAS-B had demolished and desecrated Sufi shrines in Benghazi, which the group regard as idolatrous.
AAS-B used its online presence to denounce the 2013 capture and removal from Libya of al Qa’ida operative Abu Anas al-Libi, by American military forces. In August 2013, Ahmed Abu Khattala, a senior leader of the group, was charged with playing a significant role in last year’s attack on the U.S. diplomatic compound in Benghazi.
AAS-B continues to pose a threat to Libya and Western interests and is alleged to have links to proscribed organisation Ansar al-Sharia-Tunisia and Al Qa’ida.
The US designated AAS-B as a terrorist organisation in January 2014 and the UN listed AAS-B on 19 November
Ansar Al Sharia-Tunisia (AAS-T) - Proscribed April 2014
Ansar Al Sharia-Tunisia (AAS-T) is a radical Islamist group founded in April 2011. The group aims to establish Sharia law in Tunisia and eliminate Western influence. The group is ideologically aligned to Al Qa’ida (AQ) and has links to AQ affiliated groups. It is reported that the group announced its loyalty to AQM in September 2013.
AAS-T’s leader, Seif Allah Ibn Hussein also known as Abu Ayadh al-Tunis, is a former AQ veteran combatant in Afghanistan. He has been hiding following issue of a warrant for his arrest relating to an allegation of inciting the attack on the US Embassy in Tunis that killed four people in September 2012.
Extremists believed to have links with AAS-T are assessed to be responsible for the attacks in October 2011 on a television station and, in June 2012, an attack on an art exhibit. AAS-T is assessed to be responsible for the attacks on the US Embassy and American school in Tunis in September 2012. The Tunisian government believe AAS-T was responsible for the assassination of two National Coalition Assembly members; Chokri Belaid in February 2013 and Mohamed Brahmi in July 2013.
Additionally, elements of the group are believed to have been involved in the attempted suicide attack, in October 2013, at a hotel in a tourist resort in Sousse where a significant number of British tourists were staying.
Ansar Al Sunna (AS) - Proscribed October 2005
AS is a fundamentalist Sunni Islamist extremist group based in central Iraq and what was the Kurdish Autonomous Zone (KAZ) of Northern Iraq. The group aims to expel all foreign influences from Iraq and create a fundamentalist Islamic state.
Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis (ABM) - Proscribed April 2014
ABM is an Al Qa’ida inspired militant Islamist group based in the northern Sinai region of Egypt. The group is said to recruit within Egypt and abroad and aims to create an Egyptian state ruled by Sharia law.
ABM is assessed to be responsible for a number of attacks on security forces in Egypt since 2011. The attacks appear to have increased since the overthrow of the Morsi government in July 2013. The group’s reach goes beyond the Sinai, with the group claiming responsibility for a number of attacks in Cairo and cross-border attacks against Israel. ABM has undertaken attacks using vehicle borne improvised explosive devices and surface-to-air missiles. Examples of attacks that the group has claimed responsibility for include:
- in September 2013 an attack on the Egyptian Interior Minister in which a UK national was seriously injured
- the attack on a police compound in Mansoura on 24 December 2013, killing at least 16 people, including 14 police officers
- an attack on a tourist bus in which three South Koreans and their Egyptian driver died on 16 January 2014
Ansaroul Islam also known as Ansar ul Islam and Ansaroul Islam Lil Irchad Wal Jihad - Proscribed March 2019
Ansaroul Islam’s overarching aim is to establish dominance over the historic Fulani - kingdom of Djelgoodji (northern Burkina Faso and central Mali) and the implementation of its own strict Salafi Sharia. The group announced its existence on 16 December 2016 and claimed responsibility for an attack on an army outpost in Nassoumboa (Burkina Faso) which killed at least 12 soldiers.
Ansaroul Islam seeks to eradicate Burkinabe state presence from the country’s northern regions. Doing so, through attacks on government interests, including on: police stations, schools and civic officials; catalysing the departure of others from the region. Typical methodologies include small arms fire and IEDs. Further, the predominantly Fulani Ansaroul Islam frequently target other ethnic groups leading to substantial internal displacement of persons. Ansaroul Islam is highly likely supported by the federation of Al Qa’ida groups in Mali, Jamaat Nusrat al-Islam Wal-Muslimin (JNIM). Ansaroul Islam is designated as a terrorist group by the US.
Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis Sudan (Vanguard for the protection of Muslims in Black Africa) (Ansaru) - Proscribed November 2012
Ansaru is an Islamist terrorist organisation based in Nigeria. They emerged in 2012 and are motivated by an anti-Nigerian government and anti-Western agenda. They are broadly aligned with Al Qa’ida.
Armed Islamic Group (Groupe Islamique Armée) (GIA) - Proscribed March 2001
The aim of the GIA is to create an Islamic state in Algeria using all necessary means, including violence.
Asbat Al-Ansar (League of Partisans or Band of Helpers) - Proscribed November 2002
Sometimes going by the aliases of ‘The Abu Muhjin’ group/faction or the ‘Jama’at Nour’, this group aims to enforce its extremist interpretation of Islamic law within Lebanon and, increasingly, further afield.
Atomwaffen Division (AWD) also known as National Socialist Order (NSO) – Proscribed April 2021
AWD is a predominately US-based white supremacist group that was active between 2015 to 2020. AWD celebrates a collection of essays which advocate the use of violence in order to bring about a fascist, white ethno-state by initiating the collapse of modern society by means of a ‘race war’. This ideology has become known as ‘accelerationism’. AWD’s online propaganda has encouraged and promoted terrorist acts and this content likely remains influential among accelerationist terrorist groups. AWD has inspired, at least in part, several loosely affiliated franchise groups abroad, including Feuerkrieg Division, which was proscribed in July 2020.
In March 2020, AWD claimed that it had disbanded following pressure from US law enforcement agencies. In July 2020, National Socialist Order (NSO) announced itself online as AWD’s ‘successor’. AWD is almost certainly now operating under the name NSO in the United States. NSO adheres to the same ideology and has similar accelerationist aims as it did when it was called AWD. Under the name NSO, the organisation has publicly dedicated itself to bringing about ‘white power’ governments ‘by any means necessary’ and it is almost certain that ‘any means necessary’ is intended to be understood as endorsing violence.
Babbar Khalsa (BK) - Proscribed March 2001
BK is a Sikh movement that aims to establish an independent Khalistan within the Punjab region of India.
Basque Homeland and Liberty (Euskadi ta Askatasuna) (ETA) - Proscribed March 2001
ETA seeks the creation of an independent state comprising the Basque regions of both Spain and France.
Baluchistan Liberation Army (BLA) - Proscribed July 2006
BLA are comprised of tribal groups based in the Baluchistan area of Eastern Pakistan, which aims to establish an independent nation encompassing the Baluch dominated areas of Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran.
Boko Haram (Jama’atu Ahli Sunna Lidda Awati Wal Jihad) (BH) - Proscribed July 2013
Boko Haram is a terrorist organisation, based in Nigeria that aspires to establish Islamic law in Nigeria and has carried out a number of terrorist attacks that have targeted all sections of Nigerian society.
Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ) - Proscribed March 2001
The main aim of the EIJ is to overthrow the Egyptian government and replace it with an Islamic state. However, since September 1998, the leadership of the group has also allied itself to the ‘global Jihad’ ideology expounded by Usama Bin Laden and has threatened Western interests.
Feuerkrieg Division (FKD) - Proscribed July 2020
FKD is a white supremacist group founded in late 2018 that has an international footprint, with members across North America and Europe. The group celebrates the concepts promoted in a collection of essays which advocate the use of violence and mass murder in pursuit of an apocalyptic race war.
Whilst the bulk of FKD’s activity is online, members have engaged in distributing violent, racist and anti-Semitic propaganda. In mid-2019 the group reportedly called for the deaths of a European Parliament politician and YouTube’s chief executive officer.
FKD’s members have been arrested on terrorism charges both in the UK and overseas. In 2019, US authorities charged several individuals with a variety of offences, including weapons charges, plotting to bomb a synagogue and attack members of the LGBTQ community, plotting to bomb a major news network, and distributing information related to explosives and weapons of mass destruction.
In September 2019, UK police apprehended a 16-year-old on suspicion of the commission, preparation, and instigation of acts of terrorism. As a result, the group distributed among its members a list of police buildings and an image of the Chief Constable of West Midlands Police, with a gun to his head and the words “Race Traitor” across his eyes, urging members to carry out attacks in retaliation for the arrest of one of its followers. In October 2019, a 21-year-old appeared in court in London charged with terror offences relating to his purported support for FKD. He allegedly encouraged the mass murder of members of the Jewish and LGBTQ communities.
FKD members have condoned and glorified acts of terrorism. This includes the Charleston church shooting; the Synagogue shooting in Pittsburgh; the Oklahoma City bombing; and the Christchurch shooting.
On 8 February 2020 FKD announced on its Telegram channel that it would be dissolving. However, no reason was given for the group’s dissolution and it is assessed that the group and its members remain active through other channels.
Global Islamic Media Front (GIMF) including GIMF Banlga Team also known as Ansarullah Bangla Team (ABT) and Ansar-al Islam – Proscribed July 2016
GIMF is an Islamist extremist propaganda organisation associated with Al Qa’ida (AQ) and other extremist groups around the world. Its activities include propagating a jihadist ideology, producing and disseminating training manuals to guide terror attacks and publishing jihadi news casts. GIMF releases products in a number of languages including Arabic, Urdu, Bengali, English, German and French.
On 31 December 2015, the GIMF announced the merger of ABT into its ranks, renaming it GIMF Bangla Team. Prior to the merger, using the names ABT and Ansar-al Islam, the group claimed responsibility for the prominent murders and attacks of secular bloggers from 2013 to 2015: including Bangladeshi-American Avijit Roy; Niladri Chatterji Niloy; Ahmed Rajib Haider; Asif Mohiuddin; Oyasiqur Rahman; Ananta Bijoy; Das and AKM Shafiul Islam. The group have been linked to a number of hit lists of bloggers, writers and activists around the world (including nine individuals based in Britain, seven in Germany and two in America, one in Canada and one in Sweden) in 2015.
On 7 January 2016 GIMF Bangla Team published an infographic chronicling attacks carried out against “blasphemers in Bangladesh” from January 2013 to October 2015. The graphic contained names and locations of 13 attacks, eight of which were celebrated as successful assassinations. Bangladesh banned ABT in May 2015.
Groupe Islamique Combattant Marocain (GICM) - Proscribed October 2005
The traditional primary objective of the GICM has been the installation of a governing system of the caliphate to replace the governing Moroccan monarchy. The group also has an Al Qa’ida-inspired global extremist agenda.
Harakat al-Muqawamah al-Islamiyyah (Hamas) – Proscription extended November 2021
Hamas is a militant Islamist movement that was established in 1987, following the first Palestinian intifada. Its ideology is related to that of the Muslim Brotherhood combined with Palestinian nationalism. Its main aims are to liberate Palestine from Israeli occupation, the establishment of an Islamic state under Sharia law and the destruction of Israel (although Hamas no longer demands the destruction of Israel in its Covenant). The group operates in Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories. Hamas formally established Hamas IDQ in 1992. Hamas IDQ was proscribed by the UK in March 2001. At the time it was HM government’s assessment that there was a sufficient distinction between the so called political and military wings of Hamas, such that they should be treated as different organisations, and that only the military wing was concerned in terrorism. The government now assess that the approach of distinguishing between the various parts of Hamas is artificial. Hamas is a complex but single terrorist organisation.
Hamas commits and participates in terrorism. Hamas has used indiscriminate rocket or mortar attacks, and raids against Israeli targets. During the May 2021 conflict, over 4,000 rockets were fired indiscriminately into Israel. Civilians, including 2 Israeli children, were killed as a result. Palestinian militant groups, including Hamas, frequently use incendiary balloons to launch attacks from Gaza into southern Israel. There was a spate of incendiary balloon attacks from Gaza during June and July 2021, causing fires in communities in southern Israel that resulted in serious damage to property.
Hamas also prepares for acts of terrorism. One incident of preparatory activity is that Hamas recently launched summer camps in Gaza which focus on training groups, including minors, to fight. This is evidence of Hamas being responsible for running terrorist training camps in the region. In a press statement, Hamas described the aim of these camps as to “ignite the embers of Jihad in the liberation generation, cultivate Islamic values and prepare the expected victory army to liberate Palestine”.
Harakat-Ul-Jihad-Ul-Islami (HUJI) - Proscribed October 2005
The aim of HUJI is to achieve though violent means accession of Kashmir to Pakistan, and to spread terror throughout India. HUJI has targeted Indian security positions in Kashmir and conducted operations in India proper.
Harakat-Ul-Jihad-Ul-Islami (Bangladesh) (HUJI-B) - Proscribed October 2005
The main aim of HUJI-B is the creation of an Islamic regime in Bangladesh modelled on the former Taliban regime in Afghanistan. Harakat-Ul-Mujahideen/Alami (HuM/A) and Jundallah - Proscribed October 2005
The aim of both HuM/A and Jundallah is the rejection of democracy of even the most Islamic-oriented style, and to establish a caliphate based on Sharia law, in addition to achieving accession of all Kashmir to Pakistan. HuM/A has a broad anti-Western and anti-President Musharraf agenda.
Harakat Mujahideen (HM) - Proscribed March 2001
HM, previously known as Harakat Ul Ansar (HuA) seeks independence for Indian-administered Kashmir. The HM leadership was also a signatory to Usama Bin Laden’s 1998 fatwa, which called for worldwide attacks against US and Western interests.
Haqqani Network (HQN) - Proscribed March 2015
The Haqqani Network (HQN) is an Islamist, nationalist group seeking to establish sharia law and control territory in Afghanistan. It is ideologically aligned with the Taleban, and aims to eradicate Western influence, disrupt the Western military and political efforts in Afghanistan. The group is demanding that US and Coalition Forces withdraw from Afghanistan. The group is led by Jalaluddin Haqqani and his son, Sirajuddin.
HQN has links with a number of terrorist groups in the region including proscribed Central Asian group Islamic Jihad Union (IJU). HQN also have long established links with Al Qa’ida (AQ) that were strengthened after the removal of the Taleban by the US when AQ leader Osama bin Laden was probably sheltered by Jalaluddin in North Waziristan (NWA).
HQN continues to play an active and influential role in the Afghan insurgency in the East of the country and is seeking to expand its influence in to other areas of Afghanistan. While it can be difficult to identify specific HQN responsibility for attacks, given the Taleban practice of claiming attacks on behalf of the insurgency as a whole, the group believed to have been responsible for the recent attack against the British Embassy vehicle in November 2014 which killed six people including a UK national and an Afghan member of UK Embassy staff and injuring more than 30 people.
It is likely that HQN will continue to view Kabul as a key target location due to the concentration of UK and Western interests in the capital.
HQN has been banned as a terrorist group by the USA since September 2012, Canada since May 2013 and the UN since November 2012.
Hasam including Harakat Sawa’d Misr, Harakat Hasm and Hasm - Proscribed December 2017
The group is an extremist group using violent tactics against the Egyptian security forces, and the Egyptian regime. The group announced its creation on 16 July 2016 following an attack in Fayoum Governate, Egypt. In September 2016 the group claimed responsibility for the attempted assassination of Assistant Prosecutor General Zakaria Abdel-Aziz. On 5 August 2016 the group also claimed responsibility for the attempted assassination of the former Grand Mufti of Egypt Ali Gomaa.
The group have claimed responsibility for over 15 attacks including:
- 8 March 2017 - Small arms fire in Cairo
- 26 March 2017 - IED attack in Cairo
- 1 May 2017 - Small arms fire in Cairo
- 18 June 2017 – IED attack in Cairo
- 7 July 2017 - Small arms fire in Cairo
- 20 July 2017 - Small arms fire in Fayoum Governate
- 30 September 2017 – IED explosion close to the Myanmar Embassy Cairo
Hizballah (Party of God) - Proscribed March 2019
Hizballah is committed to armed resistance to the state of Israel and aims to seize all Palestinian territories and Jerusalem from Israel. It supports terrorism in Iraq and the Palestinian territories.
Hizballah was established during the Lebanese civil war and in the aftermath of the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982. Hizballah is committed to armed resistance to the state of Israel and aims to seize all Palestinian territories and Jerusalem from Israel. It supports terrorism in Iraq and the Palestinian territories. Hizballah continues to amass an arsenal of weapons in Lebanon, in direct contravention of UN Security Council Resolutions 1701 and 1559, putting the security of the region at risk. Its involvement in the Syrian civil war, since 2012, continues to prolong the conflict and the regime’s brutal and violent repression of the Syrian people - violating the Lebanese government’s policy of disassociation from regional conflicts, increasingly destabilising the region’s long-term stability.
Hizballah, as a political entity in Lebanon has won votes in legitimate elections and forms part of the Lebanese government. It has the largest non-state military force in the country.
The UK government proscribed Hizballah’s External Security Organisation in 2001. In 2008, the proscription was extended to include the whole of Hizballah’s military apparatus, namely the Jihad Council and all the units reporting to it.
Hizballah itself has publicly denied a distinction between its military and political wings. The group in its entirety is assessed to be concerned in terrorism.
The US, Canada, the Netherlands, Israel, the Gulf Co-operation Council and Bahrain also designate the group in its entirety as a terrorist organisation
Imarat Kavkaz (IK) also known as the Caucasus Emirate - Proscribed December 2013
Imarat Kavkaz seeks a Sharia-based Caliphate across the North Caucasus. It regularly uses terrorist tactics and has carried out attacks against both Russian state and civilian targets. The organisation claimed responsibility for the attack on Domedodevo airport in Moscow in January 2011, that killed 35 including one British national and a suicide attack on the Moscow Metro in March 2010 that killed 39. Since then there has been continued activity by Imarat Kavkaz, including renewed threats of terrorist activity in Russia.
Indian Mujahideen (IM) - Proscribed July 2012
IM aims to establish an Islamic state and implement Sharia law in India using violent means.
Islamic Army of Aden (IAA) - Proscribed March 2001
The IAA’s aims are the overthrow of the current Yemeni government and the establishment of an Islamic State following Sharia Law.
Islamic Jihad Union (IJU) - Proscribed July 2005
The primary strategic goal of the IJU is the elimination of the current Uzbek regime. The IJU would expect that following the removal of President Karimov, elections would occur in which Islamic-democratic political candidates would pursue goals shared by the IJU leadership.
Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) - Proscribed November 2002
The primary aim of IMU is to establish an Islamic state in the model of the Taleban in Uzbekistan. However, the IMU is reported to also seek to establish a broader state over the entire Turkestan area.
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) also known as Dawlat al-‘Iraq al-Islamiyya, Islamic State of Iraq (ISI), Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and Dawlat al Islamiya fi Iraq wa al Sham (DAISh) and the Islamic State in Iraq and Sham - Proscribed June 2014
ISIL is a brutal Sunni Islamist terrorist group active in Iraq and Syria. The group adheres to a global jihadist ideology, following an extreme interpretation of Islam, which is anti-Western and promotes sectarian violence. ISIL aims to establish an Islamic State governed by Sharia law in the region and impose their rule on people using violence and extortion.
ISIL was previously proscribed as part of Al Qa’ida (AQ). However, on 2 February 2014, AQ senior leadership issued a statement officially severing ties with ISIL. This prompted consideration of the case to proscribe ISIL in its own right.
ISIL not only poses a threat from within Syria but has made significant advances in Iraq. The threat from ISIL in Iraq and Syria is very serious and shows clearly the importance of taking a strong stand against the extremists.
We are aware that a number of British nationals have travelled to Syria and some of these will inevitably be fighting with ISIL. It appears that ISIL is treating Iraq and Syria as one theatre of conflict and its potential ability to operate across the border must be a cause of concern for the whole international community.
In April 2014, ISIL claimed responsibility for a series of blasts targeting a Shia election rally in Baghdad. These attacks are reported to have killed at least 31 people. Thousands of Iraqi civilians lost their lives to sectarian violence in 2013, and attacks carried out by ISIL will have accounted for a large proportion of these deaths.
ISIL has reportedly detained dozens of foreign journalists and aid workers. In September 2013, members of the group kidnapped and killed the commander of Ahrar ash-Sham after he intervened to protect members of a Malaysian Islamic charity.
In January 2014, ISIL captured the Al-Anbar cities of Ramadi and Fallujah and is engaged in ongoing fighting with the Iraqi security forces. The group also claimed responsibility for a car bomb attack that killed four people and wounded dozens in the southern Beirut suburb of Haret Hreik.
ISIL has a strong presence in northern and eastern Syria where it has instituted strict Sharia law in the towns under its control. The group is responsible for numerous attacks and a vast number of deaths. The group is believed to attract foreign fighters, including Westerners, to the region.
The group has maintained control of various towns on the Syrian/Turkish border allowing the group to control who crosses and ISIL’s presence there has interfered with the free flow of humanitarian aid.
The government laid an Order in August 2014 which provides that “Islamic State (Dawlat al Islamiya)” should be treated as another name for the organisation which is already proscribed as ISIL. The UK does not recognise ISIL’s claims of a ‘restored’ Caliphate or a new Islamic State. The government laid an Order in February 2019, which provides that “Jaysh Khalid Bin Walid (JKbW) (JKW)” “Jaysh Khalid bin al-Walid (KBW)” and “Khalid ibn-Walid Army (KBWA)” should be treated as alternative names for the organisation which is already proscribed as ISIL.
Jaish e Mohammed (JeM) and splinter group Khuddam Ul-Islam (Kul) – JeM proscribed March 2001and KuI proscribed October 2005
JeM and KuI seek the ‘liberation’ of Kashmir from Indian control as well as the ‘destruction’ of America and India. JeM has a stated objective of unifying the various Kashmiri militant groups.
Jamaah Anshorut Daulah - Proscribed July 2016
JAD was established in March 2015 following the merger of several Indonesian extremist and terrorist groups aligned to Daesh. JAD has extensive links to Daesh and actively recruits fighters in Syria.
The group is led by the imprisoned extremist cleric Aman Abdurrahman and has close ties to other terrorist groups including Daesh. Its membership includes several former Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) members. JI were responsible for the 2002 and 2005 Bali attacks.
JAD was responsible for the attack near Sarinah Mall in Jakarta in January 2016, which was claimed by Daesh and resulted in the deaths of seven people (including the five attackers) and 20 people (including five police officers) being injured.
Jamaat Nusrat al-Islam Wal-Muslimin (JNIM) also known as Jamaat Nusrat al-Islam Wal-Muslimin (JNIM), Nusrat al-Islam, Nusrat al-Islam wal Muslimeen (NIM), including Ansar al-Dine (AAD), Macina Liberation Front (MLF), al-Murabitun, al-Qa’ida in the Maghreb and az-Zallaqa - Proscribed March 2019.
Jamaat Nusrat al-Islam Wal-Muslimin (JNIM) was established in March 2017, as a federation of Al Qa’ida (AQ) aligned groups in Mali, including AQ-M Sahel Branch (AQ-MSB), Ansar al-Dine (AAD), Macina Liberation Front (MLF) and al-Murabitun. JNIM’s area of operations encompasses northern and central Mali, northern Burkina Faso and western Niger (the western Sahel region). JNIM aims to eradicate state and Western presence from these areas, and to institute governance in accordance with a strict Salafist interpretation of Sharia law. Attacks on Western interests in the region and across wider West Africa are one means by which JNIM seeks to achieve these goals. Kidnap of Western nationals for ransom purposes remains a lucrative source of income for the group.
JNIM attacks are typically claimed via az-Zallaqa the group’s media foundation, examples include:
- 18 June 2017 - firearms and IED attack on Le Campement Resort in Bamako, in which three civilians and two military personnel were killed;
- 2 March 2018 - VBIED and firearms attack on the French Embassy and Burkinabe Chief of Defence HQ in Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso;
- 14 April 2018 - VBIED and firearms attack on Barkhane and United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilisation Mission in Mali (Minusma) camp in Timbuktu, Mali;
- 22 April 2018 - indirect fire attack on Barkhane and Minusma camp in Timbuktu, Mali;
- 28 June 2018 - VBIED attack on the G5 Sahel Force HQ at Sevare, Mopti region, Sahel; and
- 29 July 2018 - VBIED attack on the Malian Army and BARKHANE convoy in the Gao region, Mali on fire attack on Barkhane and Minusma camp at Aguelhok, Kidal region, Mali.
The US and UN also designate the group as a terrorist organisation.
Jamaat ul-Ahrar (JuA) - Proscribed March 2015
JuA is a militant Islamist group that split away from Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) in August 2014. JuA aims to establish an Islamic caliphate in Pakistan and aspires to extend global jihad into the Indian subcontinent.
The group have claimed responsibility for a number of recent attacks, including on 21 November 2014, a grenade attack on the Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM) in Orangi Town area of Karachi that killed 3 members of the Sindh Assembly and injured 50 workers; on 7 November 2014, twin bombings targeting peace committee volunteers in Chinari village of Safi Tehsil in the Mohmand Agency killed at least 6 people. JuA’s spokesman, Ehsanullah Ehsan, claimed responsibility and vowed to continue attacking tribal peace committees; and on 2 November 2014, the suicide bomber attack on the Pakistan side of Wagah border crossing, shortly after the famous flag-lowering ceremony had concluded, that killed over 60 people.
In September 2014, Ehsanullah Ehsan released a statement criticising the British government for arresting Al Muhajiroun (ALM) associates and made a threat, stating that “your future security depends upon how nicely you treat the Muslims in Britain”.
In March 2015 the group claimed responsibility for fatal attacks on Christian sites in Lahore.
Jammat-ul Mujahideen Bangladesh (JMB) - Proscribed July 2007
JMB first came to prominence on 20 May 2002 when eight of its members were arrested in possession of petrol bombs. The group has claimed responsibility for numerous fatal bomb attacks across Bangladesh in recent years, including suicide bomb attacks in 2005.
Jamaat Ul-Furquan (JuF) - Proscribed October 2005
The aim of JuF is to unite Indian administered Kashmir with Pakistan; to establish a radical Islamist state in Pakistan; the ‘destruction’ of India and the USA; to recruit new jihadis; and the release of imprisoned Kashmiri militants.
Jaysh al Khalifatu Islamiya (JKI) which translates as the Army of the Islamic Caliphate –proscribed November 2014
JKI is an Islamist jihadist group, consisting predominately of Chechen fighters. JKI is an opposition group active in Syria.
JKI splintered from Jaysh al-Muhajireen Wal Ansar (JAMWA) in 2013. At that point a number of members went with Umar Shishani (aka Umar the Chechen) to join the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and, the rest of the group stayed distinct and renamed itself Majahideen of the Caucasus and the Levant (MCL) and more recently renamed itself JKI.
Before his death in 2014, JKI was led by Seyfullah Shishani, who had pledged allegiance to the leader of the Al Nusrah Front, Mohammed Al-Jawlani. JKI has assisted ANF and ISIL in conducting attacks.
In February 2014, a British individual linked to the group, carried out a suicide attack on a prison in Aleppo, resulting in prisoner escapes.
Jeemah Islamiyah (JI) - Proscribed November 2002
JI’s aim is the creation of a unified Islamic state in Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Southern Philippines.
Jund al-Aqsa (JAA) which translates as Soldiers of al-Aqsa - Proscribed January 2015 JAA is a splinter group of Al Nusrah Front (ANF), active in Syria against the Syrian government since September 2013. JAA is a foreign fighter battalion of a variety of nationalities, as well as a native Syrian contingent. The group is primarily operating in Idlib and Hama.
JAA is believed to be responsible for the attack on 9 February 2014 in Maan village killing 40 people of which 21 were civilians. JAA and Ahrar al-Sham are reported to have uploaded YouTube footage of their joint offensive against the village, although neither group has claimed responsibility.
JAA has supported the Islamic Front in an operation to seize Hama military airport during July 2014. ANF released a document summarising its operations in August 2014, which included details of an attack that targeted a resort hotel conducted in collaboration with JAA.
Jund al Khalifa-Algeria (JaK-A) which translates as Soldiers of the Caliphate - Proscribed January 2015
JaK-A is an Islamist militant group believed to be made up of members of dormant Al Qa’ida (AQ) cells. JaK-A announced its allegiance to the Islamic State of Iraq and Levant (ISIL) in a communiqué released on 13 September 2014.
In April 2014, JaK-A claimed responsibility for an ambush on a convoy, that killed 11 members of the Algerian army. On 24 September 2014, the group beheaded a mountaineering guide, Hervé Gourdel, a French national. The abduction was announced on the same day that a spokesman for ISIL, warned that it would target Americans and other Western citizens, especially the French, after French jets joined the US in carrying out strikes in Iraq on ISIL targets.
Kateeba al-Kawthar (KaK) also known as Ajnad al-sham and Junud ar-Rahman al Muhajireen - Proscribed June 2014
KaK describes itself as a group of mujahideen from more than 20 countries seeking a ‘just’ Islamic nation.
KaK is an armed terrorist group fighting to establish an Islamic state in Syria. The group is aligned to the most extreme groups operating in Syria and has links to Al Qa’ida. The group’s leader is described as a Western Mujaadid commander. KaK is believed to attract a number of Western foreign fighters and has released YouTube footage encouraging travel to Syria and asking Muslims to support the fighters.
Lashkar e Tayyaba (LT) - Proscribed March 2001
LT seeks independence for Kashmir and the creation of an Islamic state using violent means.
The government laid an Order in March 2009 which provides that “Jama’at’ ud Da’wa (JuD)” should be treated as another name for the organisation which is already proscribed as Lashkar e Tayyaba.
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) - Proscribed March 2001
The LTTE is a terrorist group fighting for a separate Tamil state in the North and East of Sri Lanka.
Liwa al-Thawra - Proscribed December 2017
Liwa al-Thawra is an extremist group using violent tactics against Egyptian security forces, to fight for political reform and an end to the Egyptian regime. It announced its creation on 21 August 2016 following an attack in Monofeya, Egypt. The group is responsible for assassination attempts against Egyptian officials. The group have claimed responsibility for attacks including:
- 21 August 2016 the group claimed responsibility for the attack in Monofeya, Egypt
- 22 October 2016 the group claimed responsibility for the assassination of Egyptian Brigadier General Adel Regali
- On 1 April 2017 the group claimed responsibility for the bombing of the Egyptian police training centre in Tanta, Egypt
Minbar Ansar Deen also known as Ansar al-Sharia UK - Proscribed July 2013
Minbar Ansar Deen is a Salafist group based in the UK that promotes and encourages terrorism. Minbar Ansar Deen distributes content through its online forum which promotes terrorism by encouraging individuals to travel overseas to engage in extremist activity, specifically fighting. The group is not related to Ansar al-Sharia groups in other countries.
Mujahidin Indonesia Timur (MIT) which translates as Mujahideen of Eastern Indonesia - Proscribed July 2016 MIT is Indonesia’s most active terrorist group based in the mountainous jungle of Poso, in Central Sulawesi. Its leader, Abu Warda also known as Santoso, is one of Indonesia’s most wanted terrorist. The group’s modus operandi is to attack the police and the army which includes the use of explosives (including the use of IEDs), and shootings. MIT have been responsible for deaths of more than a dozen police officers in Poso in the last three years. They have also used kidnappings and beheadings of Christian farmers in Poso to dissuade the local populace from assisting the police.
MIT pledged its allegiance to Daesh in July 2014 and are assessed to have links to other Daesh affiliated terrorist groups in the region. MIT has claimed responsibility for a number of recent attacks and has threatened attacks on targets across the country including the capital (specifically the Jakarta police headquarters and the presidential palace in a video uploaded on 22 November 2015).
In September 2015 MIT was banned as a terrorist group by the USA and the UN.
National Action - Proscribed December 2016
National Action is a racist neo-Nazi group that was established in 2013. It has a number of branches across the UK, which conduct provocative street demonstrations and stunts aimed at intimidating local communities. Its activities and propaganda materials are particularly aimed at recruiting young people.
The group is virulently racist, anti-Semitic and homophobic. Its ideology promotes the idea that Britain will inevitably see a violent ‘race war’, which the group claims it will be an active part of. The group rejects democracy, is hostile to the British state and seeks to divide society by implicitly endorsing violence against ethnic minorities and perceived ‘race traitors’.
National Action’s online propaganda material, disseminated via social media, frequently features extremely violent imagery and language. It condones and glorifies those who have used extreme violence for political or ideological ends. This includes tweets posted by the group in 2016, in connection with the murder of Jo Cox(which the prosecutor described as a terrorist act), stating “Only 649 MPs to go” and a photo of Thomas Mair with the caption “don’t let this man’s sacrifice go in vain” and ”Jo Cox would have filled Yorkshire with more subhumans!”, as well as an image condoning and celebrating the terrorist attack on the Pulse nightclub in Orlando and another depicting a police officer’s throat being slit. The images can reasonably be taken as inferring that these acts should be emulated and therefore amount to the unlawful glorification of terrorism.
The government laid an Order in September 2017 which provides that “Scottish Dawn” and “NS131 (National Socialist Anti-Capitalist Action)” should be treated as alternative names for the organisation which is already proscribed as National Action.
The government laid an Order in February 2020 which provides that “System Resistance Network (SRN)” should be treated as an alternative name for the organisation which is already proscribed as National Action.
Palestinian Islamic Jihad - Shaqaqi (PIJ) - Proscribed March 2001
PIJ aims to end the Israeli occupation of Palestine and to create an Islamic state. It opposes the existence of the state of Israel, the Middle East Peace Process and the Palestinian Authority, and has carried out suicide bombings against Israeli targets.
Partiya Karkeren Kurdistani (PKK) which translates as the Kurdistan Worker’s Party - Proscribed March 2001
PKK/KADEK/KG is primarily a separatist movement that seeks an independent Kurdish state in southeast Turkey. The PKK changed its name to KADEK and then to Kongra Gele Kurdistan, although the PKK acronym is still used by parts of the movement.
The government laid an Order in 2006 which provides that “KADEK” and “Kongra Gele Kurdistan” should be treated as alternative names for the organisation which is already proscribed as PKK.
The UK government proscribed “Teyre Azadiye Kurdistan (TAK)” in 2006, subsequently an Order was laid in February 2020 which provides that “Teyre Azadiye Kurdistan” (TAK) and “Hezen Parastina Gel (HPG)” should be treated as alternative names for the organisation which is already proscribed as PKK.
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command (PFLP-GC) - Proscribed June 2014
PFLP-GC is a left wing nationalist Palestinian militant organisation formed in 1968. It is based in Syria and was involved in the Palestine intifada during the 1970s and 1980s. The group is separate from the similarly named Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP).
From its outset, the group has been a Syrian proxy. PFLP-GC has been fighting in the Syrian war in support of Assad, including in Yarmouk Refugee Camp in July 2013. The group also issued statements in support of the Syrian government, Hizballah, and Iran.
Revolutionary Peoples’ Liberation Party - Front (Devrimci Halk Kurtulus Partisi - Cephesi) (DHKP-C) - Proscribed March 2001
DHKP-C aims to establish a Marxist-Leninist regime in Turkey by means of armed revolutionary struggle.
The government laid Orders in February 2019, which provides that “Revolutionary People’s Liberation Party—Front (Devrimci Halk Kurtulus Partisi-Cephesi) (DHKP-C)”, “Revolutionary People’s Liberation Front (DHKC)”, “Revolutionary People’s Liberation Party (DHKP)” and “Revolutionary People’s Liberation Front/Armed Propaganda Units (DHKC/SPB)” should be treated as alternative names for the organisation which is already proscribed DHKP-C.
Salafist Group for Call and Combat (Groupe Salafiste pour la Predication et le Combat) (GSPC) - Proscribed March 2001
Its aim is to create an Islamic state in Algeria using all necessary means, including violence.
Saved Sect or Saviour Sect - Proscribed July 2006
The Saved Sect /Al Ghurabaa is an Islamist group which seeks to establish an Islamic Caliphate ruled by Shariah law. The group first emerged as Al Muhajiroun in the UK, in 1996, led by Omar Bakri Muhammed, who then publicly disbanded the organisation in 2004. The organisation reformed in 2004 under the names Al Ghurabaa and the Saved Sect. While the Group has some links to groups overseas, it is based and operates within the UK.
The government laid Orders in January 2010 and November 2011, which provides that “Al Muhajiroun”, “Islam4UK”, “Call to Submission”, “Islamic Path”, “London School of Sharia” and “Muslims Against Crusades” should be treated as alternative names for the organisation which is already proscribed under the names Al Ghurabaa and The Saved Sect.
The government laid an Order in June 2014 recognising “Need4Khilafah”, the “Shariah Project” and the “Islamic Dawah Association” as the same as the organisation proscribed as Al Ghurabaa and The Saved Sect, which is also known as “Al Muhajiroun”.
Sipah-e Sahaba Pakistan (SSP) (Aka Millat-e Islami Pakistan (MIP) - SSP was renamed MIP in April 2003 but is still referred to as SSP) and splinter group Lashkar-e Jhangvi (LeJ) - Proscribed March 2001
The aim of both SSP and LeJ is to transform Pakistan by violent means into a Sunni state under the total control of Sharia law. Another objective is to have all Shia declared Kafirs and to participate in the destruction of other religions, notably Judaism, Christianity and Hinduism.
Kafirs means non-believers: literally, one who refused to see the truth. LeJ does not consider members of the Shia sect to be Muslim, so concludes they can be considered a ‘legitimate’ target.
The government laid an Order in October 2013 which provides that “Ahle Sunnat wal Jamaat (ASWJ)” should be treated as another name for the organisation which is already proscribed as Sipah-e Sahaba Pakistan (SSP) and Lashkar-e Jhangvi (LeJ).
Sonnenkrieg Division (SKD) - Proscribed February 2020
SKD is a white supremacist group that was established in March 2018 as a splinter group of System Resistance Network (an alias of the proscribed group National Action). Members of the group were convicted of encouraging terrorism and possession of documents useful to a terrorist in June 2019. The group has encouraged and glorified acts of terrorism via its posts and images. This includes an image depicting the Duke of Sussex being shot as part of their campaign against ‘race traitors’ following his marriage to the Duchess of Sussex; and home-made propaganda using Nazi imagery calling for attacks on minorities. The images can reasonably be taken as inferring that these acts should be emulated and therefore amount to the unlawful glorification of terrorism.
Tehrik Nefaz-e Shari’at Muhammadi (TNSM) - Proscribed July 2007
TNSM regularly attacks coalition and Afghan government forces in Afghanistan and provides direct support to Al Qa’ida and the Taliban. One faction of the group claimed responsibility for a suicide attack on an army training compound on 8 November 2007 in Dargai, Pakistan, in which 42 soldiers were killed.
Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP) – Proscribed January 2011
Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan has carried out a high number of mass casualty attacks in Pakistan and Afghanistan since 2007. The group have announced various objectives and demands, such as the enforcement of sharia, resistance against the Pakistani army and the removal of NATO forces from Afghanistan. The organisation has also been involved in attacks in the West, such as the attempted Times Square car-bomb attack in May 2010.
The Base – Proscribed July 2021
The Base is a predominantly US based militant white supremacist group, formed in 2018. It draws influence from a collection of essays by prominent National Socialist, James Mason, which advocate the use of violence to initiate the collapse of modern society through a ‘race war’ and the subsequent creation of a white ethno-state. This ideology is known as ‘accelerationism’.
The Base has links with other internationally based National Socialist groups, such as Atomwaffen Division which was proscribed by the UK in April 2021, and individuals. It seeks to provide terrorist training, guidance and networking.
The Base almost certainly prepares for terrorism. While it outwardly seeks to promote itself as a “self-defence and survivalist” group and refutes any claims of its involvement in terrorist activity, the training it provides is highly likely paramilitary in nature and preparatory for offensive action. This training would almost certainly enhance both the intent and capability of trainees to conduct terrorist acts. Members of The Base have engaged in weapons and explosives training.
The Base has also almost certainly promoted or encouraged acts of terrorism and elements of its membership will almost certainly continue to do so. In late 2017, the group’s founder released a series of videos covering topics such as “lone wolf” activity, leaderless resistance and advocating guerrilla warfare.
Turkestan Islamic Party (TIP) also known as East Turkestan Islamic Party (ETIP), East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM) and Hizb al-Islami al-Turkistani (HAAT) – Proscribed July 2016
TIP is an Islamic terrorist and separatist organisation founded in 1989 by Uighur militants in western China. It aims to establish an independent caliphate in the Uighur state of Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of North-western China and to name it East Turkestan. TIP is based in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan, and operates in China, Central and South Asia and Syria. The group has claimed responsibility for a number of attacks in China, the latest of these being in April 2014. TIP has links to a number of terrorist groups including Al Qa’ida (AQ).
In November 2015, TIP released the 18th issue of its magazine ‘Islamic Turkestan’ through the Global Islamic Media Front (GIMF), detailing TIP’s jihad against the Chinese authorities. Video footage from September 2015 shows TIP hosting training camps in areas controlled by the Pakistani Taliban in North Waziristan.
More recently TIP has maintained an active and visible presence in the Syrian war and has published a number of video clips of its activities. Examples of this from March to April 2016 include:
- TIP claiming a joint attack with Jund al Aqsa in Sahl al Ghab and published a video of a suicide bomb attack in April 2016
- a video published in March 2016 which promotes the victories of TIP in Syria and calls for Muslims to join jihad
- a video slide show published in April 2016 which shows fighters and children in training
TIP has been banned by the UN and is also sanctioned by the USA under the Terrorist Exclusion list.
Turkiye Halk Kurtulus Partisi-Cephesi (THKP-C) is also known as the Peoples’ Liberation Party/Front of Turkey, THKP-C Acilciler and the Hasty Ones - Proscribed June 2014 THKP-C is a left-wing organisation formed in 1994. The group grew out of the Turkish extreme left Revolutionary Youth Movements which formed in the 1960s and 70s.
THKP-C now also operates as a pro-Assad militia group fighting in Syria and has developed increased capability since the Syrian insurgency. THKP-C is assessed to have been involved in an attack in Reyhanli, Turkey, in May 2013, killing over 50 people and injuring over 100.
The organisation has always been most prominent in the southern province of Hatay. A number of other groups have been formed under the THKP-C umbrella including ‘Mukavament Suriye’ (Syrian Resistance), which is reported to have been responsible for the recent Banias Massacre killing at least 145 people.
Wagner Group - Proscribed September 2023
Wagner Group is a Russian private military company which has acted as a malign proxy military force on behalf of the Russian state. Founded in 2014, Wagner Group has operated in a range of theatres including Ukraine, Syria, the Central African Republic, Sudan, Libya, Mozambique, and Mali.
Wagner Group have used serious violence against Ukrainian armed forces, and against civilians to advance Russia’s political aims. The organisation played a central role in combat operations against Ukrainian armed forces to seize the city of Popasna in May 2022, and during the assault of Bakhmut, which was occupied by Russian forces by June 2023.
Wagner Group has carried out preparatory acts for terrorism, including undertaking activities intended to cause serious violence against people or serious damage to property, to directly advance a political cause and to intimidate opponents, including those in Ukraine.
Wagner Group has been implicated in serious acts of violence and damage to property whilst working in certain states in Africa.
List of proscribed groups linked to Northern Ireland related terrorism
- Continuity Army Council
- Cumann na mBan
- Fianna na hEireann
- Irish National Liberation Army
- Irish People’s Liberation Organisation
- Irish Republican Army
- Loyalist Volunteer Force
- Orange Volunteers
- Red Hand Commando
- Red Hand Defenders
- Saor Eire
- Ulster Defence Association
- Ulster Freedom Fighters
- Ulster Volunteer Force