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This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/hybrid-and-other-mismatches-anti-tax-avoidance-directive/hybrid-and-other-mismatches-anti-tax-avoidance-directive
Who is likely to be affected
Large multinational groups with UK parent or subsidiary companies involved in cross-border or domestic transactions involving a mismatch in the tax treatment within the UK or between the UK and another jurisdiction.
General description of the measure
EU Directive 2017/952 amended EU Directive 2016/1164 (Anti-Tax Avoidance Directive- ATAD) by introducing detailed rules for the treatment of hybrid mismatches.
The changes detailed below ensure that the UK hybrid and other mismatch rules are fully compliant with ATAD.
The changes included here meet the UK’s obligation to implement the provisions of ATAD which applies to all taxpayers that are subject to corporate tax in one or more member states of the EU.
As amended by Council Directive (EU) 2017/952, Articles 2, 9, 9a and 9b of ATAD contain detailed provisions in relation to hybrid mismatches. The policy objective of this measure is to ensure that the UK hybrid and other mismatch rules comply with the hybrid mismatch requirements set out in ATAD.
On 23 June 2016, the EU referendum took place and the people of the UK voted to leave the EU. Until exit negotiations are concluded, the UK remains a full member of the EU and all the rights and obligations of EU membership remain in force.
During this period the government will continue to negotiate, implement and apply EU legislation.
The outcome of these negotiations will determine what arrangements apply in relation to EU legislation in future once the UK has left the EU.
Background to the measure
Council Directive (EU) 2016/1164 (ATAD) was adopted on 12 July 2016. Council Directive (EU) 2017/952 was adopted on 27 May 2017, and amended ATAD. The implementation date for the majority of the ATAD minimum standards in relation to hybrid mismatches is 1 January 2020.
The UK already has comprehensive hybrid mismatch rules which were introduced by Finance Act 2016 and came into effect from 1 January 2017.
The majority of these rules meet or exceed the minimum standards set by ATAD. However, 2 changes are required to ensure that the UK rules are fully aligned with ATAD requirements. These changes relate to the minimum standards set out in Article 9 of ATAD.
Article 9(5) of ATAD contains specific requirements in relation to the treatment of disregarded permanent establishments.
Article 9(4) of ATAD contains specific requirements in relation to the exemption of certain regulatory capital.
For completeness, ATAD also contains requirements in relation to the treatment of certain ‘reverse hybrids’ in Article 9a.
As the implementation date for those requirements is 1 January 2022, the UK will consider any further changes to legislation that need to be made in respect of Article 9a in due course.
The minor changes to the UK hybrid mismatch rules included in this measure have not been subject to prior consultation.
Draft legislation was published for consultation on 6 July 2018.
The changes included in this measure implement the provisions of the ATAD into UK law, adapting the current rules where appropriate, with effect from 1 January 2020.
The UK hybrid and other mismatches regime is contained in Part 6A of Taxation (International and Other Provisions) Act 2010.
Chapter 8 of Part 6A contains rules in relation to certain mismatches involving permanent establishments.
Chapter 14 of Part 6A contains definitions for the purposes of the hybrid and other mismatches regime, including a definition of financial instrument in section 259N(3)(b) that specifically excludes certain regulatory capital (as defined by Statutory Instrument 2013/3209) from the definition of financial instrument.
Legislation will be introduced in Finance Bill 2018-19.
The first change relates to the treatment of certain mismatches involving permanent establishments.
Section 259HA and section 259HC in Chapter 8 will be amended to include specific provisions in relation to disregarded permanent establishments (cases where a permanent establishment of a company is recognised by the jurisdiction where a company is resident, but not recognised by the jurisdiction where the permanent establishment is located).
The second change relates to the treatment of regulatory capital. The exemption for certain regulatory capital provided by section 259N(3)(b) will be amended to enable regulations to be made which will take into account the specific requirements set out by Article 9(4) of ATAD.
Summary of impacts
Exchequer impact (£m)
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This measure is expected to have a negligible impact on the Exchequer.
This measure is not expected to have any significant economic impacts.
Impact on individuals, households and families
This measure has no impact on individuals and households as it only affects companies. The measure is not expected to impact on family formation, stability or breakdown.
This measure is not expected to impact on any of the groups with protected characteristics.
Impact on business including civil society organisations
There will be a limited impact on business to an extent as these minor changes to the Hybrid and other mismatch rules in Part 6A of the Taxation (International and Other Provisions) Act will require businesses to assess whether certain mismatches are within scope of the legislation.
This measure will impact particularly on businesses who have disregarded permanent establishments and/or who are required to hold regulatory capital.
The impact on administrative burdens is expected to be negligible. One-off costs include familiarisation with the new rules.
On-going costs are expected to include specific additional accounting and reporting adjustments to ensure compliance with the new rules.
There is no impact on civil society organisations.
Operational impact (£m) (HMRC or other)
There will be negligible impact on HMRC for this change.
Other impacts have been considered and none have been identified.
Monitoring and evaluation
The measure will be kept under review through communication with affected taxpayer groups.
If you have any questions about these changes contact Mark Bryan by:
- telephone: 03000 585607
- email: firstname.lastname@example.org