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This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/dual-residents-hs302-self-assessment-helpsheet/hs302-dual-residents-2016
If you live in the UK and another country and both countries tax your income, you’re a dual resident.
You can claim full or partial relief on UK tax on your UK income if the 2 countries have a Double Taxation Agreement that allows you to do so.
A Double Taxation Agreement is an agreement between 2 countries. It’s there to make sure you do not pay tax twice on the same income. You need to look at the particular terms of your Double Taxation Agreement to find out if you can claim relief from UK tax.
Please check Double Taxation Treaties: non UK resident with UK income for further information.
You can claim relief on the following types of income:
- interest from bank and building societies
- most work pensions
You cannot claim relief if you live in the UK and in:
- a country that does not have a Double Taxation Agreement with the UK
one of the following countries:
- Isle of Man
- Myanmar (Burma)
- St Kitts
- Sierra Leone
- Soloman Islands
In this case, you can only claim relief from UK tax by getting credit for the foreign tax you pay on your overseas income. Do not fill in the claim form.
Types of relief
You can claim full relief to get back all of the UK tax you pay on your UK income. You may have to pay tax on the income to the country you live in, depending on its Double Taxation Agreement with the UK.
You can claim partial relief to get back some of the UK tax you pay on your UK income. For example, if the UK’s basic rate is 20%, and your country’s Double Taxation Agreement with the UK is 15%, you can claim 5% relief.
You can claim credit relief if your income is taxable in both the UK and the country you live in. Your country of residence will give you credit for the tax you’ve paid on your UK income, against its own tax. You need to claim back the tax you’ve paid from the country you live in.
Residence tie-breaker rules
To find out which of the 2 countries you’re a resident in, for the purpose of claiming relief, you need to check your Double Taxation Agreement’s tie-breaker rules.
These rules are a series of tests. Once you’ve satisfied 1 of the tests, you do not need to continue with the rest of them.
Permanent home - this is accommodation that’s always available for your personal use for the year in question. You do not have to own it. If you’ve a permanent home in both countries, move to the ‘centre of vital interests’ test. If you do not have a permanent home in either country, move to the ‘habitual abode’ test.
Centre of vital interests - you’re a resident of a country where your social, domestic, political and cultural links are greater. For example, you set up home in another country and keep your home in the UK where you lived, worked and where your family and possessions can, with other factors, show that your centre of vital interests remain in the UK.
Habitual abode - this shows which of the 2 countries you live in regularly, normally or customarily. The test considers the number of visits you made to each country and the length of time you stayed there. If you cannot determine if you have a habitual abode in either country, or you have a habitual abode in both countries, move to the ‘nationality’ test.
Nationality - generally, you’re resident of a country where you’re a national. However, it’s possible to have dual nationality or be a national of neither country. The Double Taxation Agreement may give the tax authorities the information they need to agree if this test is met.
If the tie-breaker tests show you’re not a UK resident, you can claim relief from UK tax on your UK income.
If the tie-breaker tests show you’re a UK resident, you’ll need to pay UK tax on your worldwide income and gains. You may be able to claim relief from tax in the other country, if your Double Taxation Agreement with the UK allows you to do so.
Certificate of overseas residence
If you want to claim relief from UK tax on your UK income, and the country you live in has a Double Taxation Agreement with the UK, you’ll need this certificate. To get one, contact your country’s tax authority.
The certificate of overseas residence must show that it regards you as resident, under their domestic laws, for the period in question.
You must attach the certificate to your claim form and send it in with your tax return.
United States of America (US)
The US taxes its citizens on their worldwide income, wherever they live, so if you live in the US, you do not need a certificate of overseas residence.
You’re a US resident if:
- you’ve a substantial presence, permanent home or habitual abode in the US
- no country other than the UK treats you as a resident
Substantial presence test
This shows how often you’re in the US over a certain period. You’ll have a substantial presence if you’re in the US:
- for at least 31 days of the calendar year in question
- for the year in question and the 2 years before that and all 3 years add up to at least 183 days
If you spend part of a day in the US, count it as a whole day.
For the purpose of the example below, a day spent in the US, in the following year under test, counts as 1/3rd, and a day in the year before that counts as 1/6th.
Geetha spends 48 days in the US in 2015, 250 days in 2014 and 365 days in 2013. A day spent in the US in 2014 and 2013, counts as 1/3 and 1/6 respectively. In 2015, the calculation is as follows:
2015 48 days x 1/1 = 48
2014 250 days x 1/3 = 84
2013 365 days x 1/6 = 61
Total = 193
Geetha passes both parts of the substantial presence test. She’s a resident in the US, under the country’s domestic law.
How to claim relief
If you want to make a claim:
- for full tax relief from the UK, fill in section 3(c) of the claim form
- for partial tax relief from the UK, fill in section 3(d) of the claim form
UK Real Estate Investment Trusts (UK-REITs)
You may be able to claim relief if you get a property income dividend and you live in a country that has a Double Taxation Agreement with the UK. To claim full relief, fill in section 3(c) of the claim form and section 3(d), to claim partial relief.
UK dividends paid after 5 April 1999
If you live in a country that has a Double Taxation Agreement with the UK, you can claim tax credit on 1/9 of your UK dividends. For example, if your UK dividend is £900, the tax credit is £100. However, since 6 April 1999, UK dividends no longer carry enough tax credit to cover UK tax rates, so you will not get any money back.