Sharing the cost of vocational (occupational) education and training between government, employers and individuals is complex. Countries around the world face similar challenges in developing a skills training system that responds to economic needs.
This review explores the different approaches to co-funding by analysing evidence from international schemes that encourage employer investment in skills training.
It also sets out practical lessons of use to policy makers, research analysts and tax officials.
The analysis contributes to other ongoing investigations into effective reforms to the further education and skills system in England designed to drive up quality and ensure provision meets demand.